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Tension pneumothorax

Presence of air in the pleural cavity with signs of mediastinal shift like : Tracheal shift and Shift of Apex beat

Compared to simple pneumothorax, there will be increased percussion note, elevated jugular pressure, decreased breath sounds, weak pulse and low BP.

A tension pneumothorax impairs venous return by caval distortion from mediastinal shift and raised intrathoracic pressure with compression of the contralateral lung.

Radiological signs of tension pneumothorax :
Tracheal shift
Spreading of ribs (Space between ribs increased)
Lowering of hemidiaphragm

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