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1000 Eponyms in Medicine & Surgery

1 - Lorenzo’s oil is after Lorenzo Odone - diagnosed with adrenoleukodystrophy in 1984 - the triglycerides of monounsaturated oleic acid and erucic acid 4:1 - felt to reduce very long chain fatty acids to normal levels in ALD.
2 - veins of Mayo are veins overlying pylorus.
3 - Hutchinson freckle is lentigo maligna - a nonfamilial precursor to lentigo maligna melanoma.
4 - Chadwick’s sign is blue-red passive hyperemia of the cervix that may appear after 7th week of pregnancy; may be seen in association with tumor; results from congestion of mucosa and most visible in anterior vaginal wall. This is also called as the jacquiemer’s sign.
5 - Cabot ring is seen in asplenia or malfunctional spleen - nuclear remnants on red blood cells as a thin - darkly-stained ring that follows the margin of the red cell . Cabot's rings may be it the form of partial loops, loops, or figure eights. Their origin is not known and they may be artifacts. They are also rare. Cabot's ring; may be present in lead poisoning, pernicious anemia, thalassemia and other severe anemias. Cabot rings are red-purple staining threadlike filaments in the shape of a ring or figure 8 in the red blood cell, often in association with basophilic stippling. They may also appear as granules in a linear array rather than as complete rings. Cabot rings are thought to be microtubules from a mitotic spindle or remnants of the nuclear membrane. Cabot rings are seen in severe anemia including megaloblastic anemia, leukemia and lead poisoning. They are distinguished from the ring forms of Plasmodium by their larger size and by the absence of a red chromatin mass (Miale, J B: Laboratory Medicine Hematology 6th ed.,CV Mosby Co.,1982, p.488).
6 - Epstein-Barr virus, frequently referred to as EBV, is a member of the herpesvirus family and one of the most common human viruses. The virus occurs worldwide, and most people become infected with EBV sometime during their lives. In the United States, as many as 95% of adults between 35 and 40 years of age have been infected. Infants become susceptible to EBV as soon as maternal antibody protection (present at birth) disappears. Many children become infected with EBV, and these infections usually cause no symptoms or are indistinguishable from the other mild, brief illnesses of childhood. In the United States and in other developed countries, many persons are not infected with EBV in their childhood years. When infection with EBV occurs during adolescence or young adulthood, it causes infectious mononucleosis 35% to 50% of the time.Epstein-Barr virus is EBV binds to CD21 found on epithelial cells and B cells; however a large number of T suppressor cells and EBV specific cells are seen as atypical lymphocytes.
7 - Sugiura procedure is for treating esophageal varices - esophageal and gastric devascularization - esophageal transection.
8 - Sneddon-Wilkinson disease is subcorneal pustular dermatosis; rare - chronic - recurrent pustular eruption characterized by subcorneal pustules that contain abundant neutrophils.
9 - von Braun-Fernwald’s sign is Piskacek’s sign. asymmetry of the uterus with a well-defined soft prominence of the cornu, due to implantation near one of the cornua."
10 - Leydig cell tumors is testicular tumor derived from the stroma - may find Reinke crystals (q.v.)
11 - Guthrie test is used for the diagnosis of PKU - a bacterial assay for phenylalanine. The Guthrie test, also known as the Guthrie bacterial inhibition assay, is a medical test performed on newborn infants to detect phenylketonuria, an inborn error of amino acid metabolism. The Guthrie test is named after Robert Guthrie, an American bacteriologist and physician, who devised it in 1962. The Guthrie test is a semiquantitative assay designed to detect elevated blood levels of the amino acid phenylalanine, using the ability of phenylalanine to facilitate bacterial growth in a culture medium with an inhibitor.A drop of blood is usually obtained by pricking the heel of a newborn infant in a hospital nursery on the second or third day of life. The blood is collected on a piece of filter paper and mailed to a central laboratory. A small disk of the filter paper is punched out and placed on an agar gel plate containing Bacillus subtilis and B-2-thienylalanine. Each gel holds 60-80 disks. The agar gel is able to support bacterial growth but the B-2-thienylalanine inhibits bacterial growth. However, in the presence of extra phenylalanine leached from the impregnated filter paper disk, the inhibition is overcome and the bacteria grow. Within a day the bacterial growth surrounding the paper disk is visible to the eye. The amount of growth, measured as the diameter of the colony, is roughly proportional to the amount of phenylalanine in the serum. The result is read by comparing the diameter of each sample disk's colony to the colonies of a series of reference disks with standard phenylalanine content included on each large plate. The Guthrie assay is sensitive enough to detect serum phenylalanine levels of 180-240 μmol/L (3-4 mg/dL). In healthy normal people, phenylalanine levels are usually under 120 μmol/L. In recent years it is gradually being replaced in many areas by newer techniques such as tandem mass spectrometry that can detect a wider variety of congenital diseases.
12 - Ghon lesion is primary area of tuberculosis infection.
13 - Paneth cells are located in small intestine crypts - cells with apically oriented bright eosinophilic granules and which appear to play a role in the mucosal immune system.
14 - Stellwag’s sign is incomplete and infrequent blinking in Graves’s disease. ( sehwag plays infrequently , incompletely and inconsistently ) .
15 - Virchow’s node is supraclavicular adenopathy associated with a malignancy - often on left side - associated with stomach cancer among other neoplasms but also GI and pelvic malignancies in general. First described by Virchow in 1848 - more cases added by Troisier in 1886; referred to as Troisier’s node in France. The presence of this node enlargement is also called the troisier’s sign and seen in many malignancies .
16 - Lynch's syndrome I and II
Associated persons: Henry T. Lynch
Description: Lynch syndrome I: Familial predisposition to colorectal cancer with right-sided predominance. Predominantly early-onset proximal colon carcinomas.
Lynch syndrome II: Familial predisposition for other primary cancers in addition to the predisposition for colon cancer; site is often female reproductive organs. Predominantly early onset proximal colon carcinoma associated with other extracolonic adenocarcinomas, particularly endometrial carcinoma.
Both disorders are inherited as autosomal dominant traits.
First described 1913 by Alder Scott Warthin, 1867-1931.
Lynch syndrome II is cancer family syndrome - all features of Lynch I with early onset of carcinoma at other sites including endometrium - ovaries - and stomach - also upper tract TCC.
17 - Barraquer-Simons syndrome is acquired partial lipodystrophy; presents usually around 8-10 years of age - preceded generally by an acute viral infection; spares legs and hips; 1/3 of patients develop membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.
18 - McLeod phenotype occurs from the absence of the Kx red blood cell antigen; characterized by acanthocytes; compensated hemolytic anemia; decreased Kell system antigens; increased CKMM isoenzymes; and progressive neurologic changes including areflexia - choreiform movements - dysarthria - wasting of muscles - and cardiomyopathy; may be associated with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease.
19 - Monod’s sign is seen in aspergillomas - radioluscent crescent seen around solitary 3-5 cm lesion on chest X-ray.
20 - TRALI syndrome is Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury; transfusion reaction occurring within 6 hours after transfusion of blood product - characterized by pulmonary edema; due to anti-granulocyte antibodies in donor’s plasma causing pulmonary sequestration of recipient leukocytes in susceptible patient.
21 - Hering-Breuer reflex is stretch receptor (in smooth muscle of airways) reflex - responsible for apnea - i.e. decreased breathing frequency - as a result of lung inflation.
22 - Ransons’ criteria is for evaluating acute pancreatitis at presentation - age>55; WBC>16 -000; glucose>200; AST>250; LDH>350. during initial 48 hrs - base deficit>4; BUN increase>5; fluid sequestration>6L; Ca <8;>10; pO2<60.>
23 - Weibel-Palade bodies is found only in endothelial cells of vessels larger than capillaries; granules contain von Willebrand’s factor (VIII) and P-selectin.
24 - Dennie’s lines is in atopic dermatitis - an accentuated line or fold below the margin of the lower eyelid.
25 - Guam disease is Guam amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-parkinsonism-dementia linked to a plant excitant neurotoxin found in cycad plant eaten by Chamorro people - toxin believed to be excitotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine - a low-potency convulsant Science 1987;237:517-22.
26 - bundle of Kent is a AV bypass accessory tract in Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome that directly connects atrial and ventricular myocardium.
27 - Graham-Little syndrome is end-stage lichen planus of the scalp resulting in scarring alopecia of the scalp.
28 - Van der Woude syndrome is an AD condition in which lip pits are seen in all gene carriers but only some individuals have cleft lips with or without cleft palate owing to variable expressivity.
29 - MacConkey medium is medium for growing nonfastidious Gram-negative rods.
30 - Hegar’s sign is softening of the uterus at the junction between the cervix and the fundus during the first trimester of pregnancy. So this is softening of the isthmus .
31 - Lachman maneuver is for diagnosing ACL tear - pull on tibia in anterior direction with knee flexed at 20-25 degrees (if tibia slides anteriorly >2 mm - positive).
32 - Allen’s sign is in pulmonary embolism - fever - tachycardia - and tachypnea - present in only 23% of cases.
33 - Isaacs’s syndrome is neuromyotonia; continuous muscle stiffness - rippling muscle movements (myokymia) - delayed relaxation following muscle contraction believed to be due to autoantibodies to presynaptic potassium channels.
34 - Stevens-Johnson syndrome is extensive and symptomatic febrile form of erythema multiforme - more common in children; 1-6 cases/million person-years.
35 - Betz cells is large pyramidal cells in layer 5 of primary motor cortex largest neurons in mammalian CNS; 30-40 -000 Betz cells in precentral gyrus in one side of the brain.
36 - Thomsen’s disease is myotonia congenita - autosomal dominant.
37 - ligament of Trietz - is the suspensory muscle of the duodenum which supports the duodenojejunal flexure.
38 - Bier block is regional anesthesia of an extremity by placing a tourniquet and then infusing local anesthetic into a vein.
39 - Trendelenburg position is position where angle of the head of bed or table is inclined at 45 degrees down; used in surgery to push the abdominal organs towards the chest.
40 - Crohn’s disease is transmural mucosal inflammation that may involve the entire GI tract from mouth to the perinanal area that often leads to fibrosis and obstructive clinical presentations; 80% small bowel involvement - usually distal ileum; 1/3 exclusively ileitis; 50% ileocolitis; and 20% disease limited to colon.
41 - lines of Blaschkow - is patterning of a variety of linear nevi as well as linear patterning of commonly acquired diseases such as psoriasis - scleroderma - and lichen planus - including V shape over the upper spine - S shape of the abdomen - inverted U shape from the breast area - and perpendicular lines down lower extremities; cannot be explained by distribution of cutaneous nerve - lines of cleavage - nor blood vessels or lymphatics; first described in 1901.
42 - Tamm-Horsfall protein is uromodulin - major component of renal casts; 30-50 mg secreted per day by cells in thick ascending limb; homologous to GP2 - a protein secreted from the acinar cell and a major component of plugs in noncalcific chronic pancreatitis.
43 - Pringle maneuver is clamping of porta hepatis to control hemorrhage. placing an atraumatic clamp across the foramen of winslow .
44 - Treacher Collins syndrome is first arch syndrome - mandibulofacial dysplasia - caused by autosomal dominant gene - resulting in malar hypoplasia with down-slanting palpebral fissures - defects in the lower eyelids - deformed external ears - and sometimes abnormalities of the middle and internal ears.
45 - Reiter’s syndrome is triad of arthritis - urethritis - and conjunctivitis described by Reiter in 1916 (Nazi sympathizer); 80% possess HLA-B27; associated with Shigella flexneri; ReA develops in 20% of exposed B27+ individuals; subset of reactive arthritis; triad present in 1/3 of patients; incidence estimated as 3.5/100K in males under age of 50; balanitis circinata (penis) and keratoderma blenorrhagica.
46 - Gunther’s disease is AR congenital erythropoietic porphyria from decreased URO synthase activity - hemolytic anemia - cutaneous lesions.
47 - Von Myenburg complexes is close to or within portal tracts - small clusters of modestly dilated bile ducts embedded in a fibrous - sometimes hyalinized stroma; contain inspissated bile concrements and may communicate with the biliary tree; common and usually without clinical significance.
48 - Aicardi syndrome is partial or complete agenesis of corpus callosum - infantile spasms - mental retardation - lacunae of the retina; occurs only in females; likely X-linked dominant with lethality in males; described in 1965.
49 - Lyme disease is inflammatory disease caused by spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi - spread by Ixodes tick - characterized by early local disease with erythema migrans - myalgias - followed by early disseminated disease characterized by carditis - neurologic findings (lymphocytic meningitis - cranial nerve palsies - also Bannwarth’s syndrome) - and late disease characterized by arthralgias and arthritis.
50 - Froment’s sign is diagnosis of ulnar nerve lesion; caused by flexor pollicus longus (median nerve) which comes into action when the patient attempts to grip a flat object between the thumb and the hand - and causes flexion at the interphalangeal joint.
51 - Marshall - vein of is oblique vein of left atrium.
52 - Cushing’s disease is hypercortisolism from pituitary corticotropin-(ACTH)-secreting corticotroph tumors - almost always benign and usually microadenomas.
53 - Bezold-Jarisch reflex is activation of receptors in the atria - great veins - and left ventricle causing increased parasympathetic tone and decreased sympathetic activity leading to a combination of hypotension and bradycardia with a sudden increase in coronary flow.
54 - Simon focus is in tuberculosis - nodule in subapical region which develops from hematogenous spread from initial infection in lower half of lung.
55 - Bell’s palsy is seventh nerve palsy; seen as a complication in diabetes - tumors - sarcoidosis - AIDS - and Lyme disease.
56 - Syme’s amputation is amputation at the ankle with removal of the malleoli and placement of the heel pad over the end of the remaining tibia; devised in 1842.
57 - Billroth’s cords is splenic cords found in the red pulp between the sinusoids - consisting mainly of fibrils and connective tissue cells.
58 - Louvel’s sign is in deep vein thrombosis - venous pain induced by coughing - prevented by pressing over proximal end of vein.
59 - Von Willebrand’s disease is deficiency in von Willebrand factor; frequency of 1% - most common inherited disorder of bleeding; type 1 and 3 reduced quantity of vWF; type 2 qualitative defects in vWF.
60 - Kussmaul’s respiration is hyperpnea - associated with acidosis - especially DKA but also in uremia.
61 - Berardinelli-Seip syndrome is congenital generalized lipodystrophy - apparent at birth - infants look very muscular due to absence of fat - associated with diabetes - hepatomegaly - acanthosis nigricans - enlarged external genitalia - and increased rate of skeletal growth.
62 - Kussmaul’s sign is jugular vein distension during inspiration (reversal of normal pattern of decreasing jugular venous pressure during inspiration); classically seen in constrictive pericarditis because of normal increase in venous return with increased abdominal pressure from diaphragmatic contraction leading to increase in right atrial pressure from non-complaint right ventricle - though most common contemporary cause is severe right-sided heart failure (JAMA 1996: 275:632); generally negative in cardiac tamponade.
63 - Nijmegen breakage syndrome is primary immunodeficiency autosomal recessive disorder that presents as microcephaly - a distinctive “bird-like” facies - growth retardation - recurrent pulmonary infections - chromosomal instability - radiation hypersensitivity - and increased incidence of malignancies - especially lymphomas from mutation in nibrin protein - a protein involved in DNA repair; cellular defect similar to ataxia-telangiectasia.
64 - Dobrin’s syndrome is TINU syndrome (tubulointerstitial nephritis with uveitis) - associated with bone marrow granulomas - first described in 1975.
65 - Westermark’s sign is in chest film - an abrupt tapering of a vessel caused by pulmonary embolism - focal oligemia.
66 - Jod-Basedow phenomenon is thyroid hyperfunction induced by excess iodine ingestion in patients with various thyroid disorders; Jod German for iodine; K. A. Von Basedow.
67 - Toldt - white lines of is the peritoneal reflections of the ascending and descending colon.
68 - Möbius syndrome is congenital facial paralysis with or without limb defects associated with maternal misoprostol use.
69 - Landolfi’s sign is in aortic regurgitation - systolic contraction and diastolic dilation of the pupil.
70 - Rasmussen’s encephalitis is progressive childhood disease characterized by severe epilepsy - hemiplegia - dementia - and inflammation of the brain potentially from autoantibodies to GluR3 antigen.
71 - La Crosse encephalitis is transmitted by tree hole mosquito - Aedes trisereiatus and causes most common arboviral infection in children in N. America; hyponatremia and fever associated with worse outcome.
72 - Carney syndrome (or triad) is nonfamilial disorder the includes combination of three rare tumors: gastric leiomyosarcoma - pulmonary chondroma - extraadrenal paraganglioma but no cardiac manifestations; unrelated to Carney complex.
73 - Keutel syndrome is malformation syndrome characterized by multiple pulmonary stenoses - neural hearing loss - short terminal phalanges - and calcifications and/or ossification of the cartilage in ears - nose larynx - trachea - and ribs; due to mutation in gene encoding human matrix Gla protein.
74 - Watson-Schwartz reaction is screening test for porphobilinogen (elevated for example in acute intermittent porphyria); mixing 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde with urine and then extract with chloroform; porphobilinogen extracts into upper aqueous layer giving it a pink color and urobilinogen extracts into chloroform layer; 50% positive at urinary concentration 5x upper limit of normal and consistently positive 10-20x upper limit of normal.
75 - Stuart factor is factor X.
76 - Pulfrich phenomenon is misperception of trajectory of moving objects (an optical illusion that can be elicited in normal subjects) - can be associated with optic neuritis.
77 - May-Thurner syndrome is iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis from impaired venous return because of compression of the left common iliac vein by overlying right common iliac artery.
78 - Bergmann gliosis is in ethanol abuse - proliferation of astrocytes adjacent to lost Purkinje cells between depleted granular cell and molecular layer of cerebellum.
79 - Preiser disease is spontaneous - non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the scaphoid bone.
80 - Winter’s formula is gives expected pCO2 (respiratory compensation) in uncomplicated metabolic acidosis; expected CO2=[HCO3]*1.54 + 8.36.
81 - Ruffini’s corpuscles is sensory receptors for heat.
82 - Corrigan’s pulse is in aortic regurgitation - pulses are of the water-hammer or collapsing type with abrupt distension and quick collapse - can be exaggerated by raising the patient’s arm.
83 - Jolly test is in myasthenia gravis - a sequence of repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) studies specifically designed to look for neuromuscular junction disease. A positive test is a >10% decremental response with 3 Hz repetitive stimulation - 50-80% sensitive. After Friedrich Jolly - German neurologist - 1844-1904.
84 - Kocher’s test is compression of lateral lobes of thyroid causing stridor; associated with thyroid carcinoma - goiter - or thyroiditis.
85 - Lieberkühn - crypts of is intestinal glands found between villi.
86 - Werdnig-Hoffman syndrome is spinal muscular atrophy type I - autosomal recessive lower motor neuron disease - survival motor neuron protein affected (linked to 5q11.2-13.3) - presents between birth and 6 months of age - death before 2 y.o.
87 - Blau’s syndrome is granulomatous synovitis - non granulomatous uveitis - cranial neuropathies; resembles childhood sarcoidosis; no lung involvement; associated with mutations in NOD2/CARD15 gene; first described in 1985.
88 - Conradi-Hunermann syndrome is chondrodysplasia punctata - characterized by stippled epiphyses from abnormal accumulation of calcium salts and skeletal changes.
89 - Biette’s collarette is in syphilis - a thin white ring of scales on the surface of a lesion.
90 - Marjolin's ulcer is squamous cell carcinoma ulceration overlying chronic osteomyelitis or burn scar.
91 - Wilson’s disease is hepatolenticular degeneration due to mutation in gene involved in incorporation of copper into ceruloplasmin and excretion of copper into bile; Kayser-Fleischer ring; gene on chr 13 - cation transporting P-type ATPase; incidence 1:200 -000 - diagnosis based on decrease in serum ceruloplasmin - increased urinary excretion of copper - increase in hepatic copper content; 40% have neurologic findings (Parkinson’s - psychosis) and subclinical liver.
92 - Wolman disease is lysosomal acid lipase deficiency hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides in the lysosome leading to mild mental retardation - hepatomegaly - adrenal calcification - fatal in infancy with inanition - malabsorption - and intractable diarrhea.
93 - Turner’s syndrome is females with XO - short - low-set ears - shield chest - congenital heart defect (usually coarctation) - café-au-lait spots - freckles - webbed neck - lymphedema.
94 - Wada test is test for hemispheric dominance for language by injecting amobarbital into carotid artery.
95 - Wallerian degeneration is pattern of degeneration of distal portion of nerve following axonal injury with break down of axon and formation of myelin ovoids from catabolized axon fragments.
96 - Hitzig zones is in tabes dorsalis (syphilis) - regions of reduced sensation found in central face - nipples - ulnar forearms - and peroneal legs - leading to painless ulcers and joint damage.
97 - Blumberg sign is rebound tenderness.
98 - Frank’s sign is earlobe crease - associated with CAD (N Engl J Med. 1973;289:327-8).
99 - Gorham-Stout disease is vanishing or disappearing bone disease; IL-6 has pathogenetic role.
100 - Holme’s heart is single ventricle with normally-related great arteries.
101 - Kleihauer-Betke test is testing for the presence of fetal blood cells in maternal circulation .
102 - Van Wyk-Grumbach syndrome is primary hypothyroidism associated with precocious puberty and galactorrhea.
103 - Riley-Day syndrome is hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III (familial dysautonomia) - recessive disorder that commences in infancy and is characterized by conspicuous autonomic dysfunction (absent tearing - labile temperature - and blood pressure) - and accompanied by absent taste sensation - absent fungiform papillae on tongue - impaired pain and temperature sensation - and areflexia; occurs among Ashkenazi; associated with mutation in IKBKAP gene.
104 - pink disease is acrodynia - occurs from exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapor - characterized by a body rash - swelling and irritation of palms and feet followed by skin desquamation - irritability - photophobia - fever - insomnia and profuse sweating - which may also follow oral exposure to mercury compounds.
105 - Amadori product is products of early non enzymatic glycoslyation of proteins.
106 - Marshall-Smith syndrome is accelerated skeletal maturation - failure to thrive - and dysmorphic facial features with death in early infancy or childhood from pulmonary infections.
107 - Lowe’s syndrome is X-linked - oculocerebrorenal syndrome characterized by congenital cataracts - mental retardation - renal tubular acidosis type 2; from defect in lipid phosphatase - phosphatidylinositol 4 -5 bisphosphate [PtdIns(4 -5)P2]5-phosphatase - which localizes to the Golgi apparatus and is suspected to play a role in Golgi vesicular transport.
108 - hemoglobin Lepore is no beta chain; delta chain by delta-beta hybrid.
109 - gamekeeper’s thumb is injury to ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb.
110 - Batten’s disease is later-onset ceroid lipofuscinosis - CLN3 - also used to describe juvenile form specifically; in general a group of conditions characterized by mental impairment - worsening seizures - and progressive loss of sight and motor skills related to buildup of lipopigments.
111 - Bishop’s score is scoring system for determining whether or not induction of labor will be successful - based on 5 criteria (scored from 0-3): position - cervical consistency - degree of effacement - dilatation - and station; score >9 suggests that induction will be successful.
112 - Gerstmann syndrome is finger agnosia - agraphia - right-left disorientation - and dyscalculia.
113 - Milkman’s fractures is in osteomalacia - radiolucent narrow lines that lie either at right angles or obliquely to the cortical outlines of bones and often transect them; bilateral and symmetric - found at the axillary margins of the scapula - lower ribs - neck of the proximal femurs - and posterior regions of the proximal ulnas; related either to stress fractures or to mechanical erosion by penetrating nutrient arteries; aka Looser’s zones.
114 - hemoglobin Constant Spring is particularly common structural variant with alpha thalassemia in Asia - contains mutation which abolishes normal translation termination codon - so extra 31 residues read until another in-frame termination codon comees up.
115 - Stockholm syndrome is victims sympathizing with victimizer - e.g. - kidnapper; described after incident in summer of 1973 in Stockholm where hostages were taken in a failed bank robbery and after end of their captivity in six days - the hostages resisted rescue.
116 - Kegel exercises is exercises for strengthening pelvic muscles in order to increase urethral closure mechanism in urinary incontinence.
117 - Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is most common inherited peripheral neuropathy - 1/2500 - autosomal dominant - clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by slowly progressive atrophy of the distal muscles - mainly those innervated by peroneal nerve; progressive weakness of varying intensity and atrophy of the muscles of the feet - hands - and legs - leading to pes cavus - clawhand - and stork-leg appearance - usually beginning in the 2nd or 3rd decade. Enlarged greater auricular nerves may be visible and enlarged ulnar and peroneal nerves may be palpated in some patients. Cranial nerves rarely involved.
118 - Spigelian hernia is hernia through the linea semilunaris - aka spontaneous lateral ventral hernia.
119 - Vater - ampulla is location where common bile duct enters the duodenum; described by German anatomist Vater (1684-1751).
120 - Von Graefe sign is in Graves’s disease - lag of the upper eyelid as it follows the rotation of the eyeball downward.
121 - Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia is marked by diffuse - leukemia-like infiltration of the bone marrow by lymphocytes - plasma cells - and hybrid forms that synthesize a monoclonal IgM - leading to macroglobulinemia; disease of old age - macroglubilinemia giving rise to visual impairment - neurologic problems - bleeding - cryoglobulinemia; hyperviscosity.
122 - St. Vitus’s dance is Sydenham’s chorea.
123 - Bing’s sign is extensor plantar response by pricking the dorsal surface of the big toe with a pin suggesting upper motor neuron defect.
124 - Thorel’s pathway is posterior internodal tract in atrial conduction system.
125 - Parkland formula is total body surface area % burned x kg x 4; 1/2 in first 8 hours - second 1/2 given next 16 hours.
126 - Millard-Gubler syndrome is ventral pontine injury causing symptoms similar to Fouville’s syndrome except lateral rectus weakness only - instead of gaze palsy.
127 - Mazzotti reaction is reaction to proteins released by dying onchocerca - including fevers - rashes - ocular damage - joint and muscle pain - and lymphangitis as well as hypotension - pyrexia - respiratory distress - and prostration.
128 - Werner’s syndrome is a form of progeria characterized by scleroderma-like skin changes (especially in extremities) - bilateral juvenile cataracts - subcutaneous calcifications - wizened and prematurely-aged facies - hypogonadism - and diabetes mellitus; autosomal recessive inheritance; from mutation in RecQ helicase.
129 - fetor hepaticus is “musty” or “sweet odor” from the formation of mercaptans by the action of GI bacteria on the sulfur-containing amino acid methionine and shunting of splanchnic blood from the portal into the system circulation (portosystemic shunting).
130 - Lynch syndrome I is cancer family syndrome with multiple colon cancers 2 to 3 decades earlier - predilection for proximal colon; Lynch syndromes most common forms of familial colon cancer - 5-10% of all cases of colon cancer; better prognosis than sporadic colon cancer; deficiency in mismatch repair genes in 85% of Lynch syndromes; autosomal dominant.
131 - Prehn's sign is elevation of painful testicle decreases pain of epididymitis.
132 - Ramirez sign is in deep vein thrombosis - sphygmomanometer cuff placed above knee inflated to 40 mm Hg causing pain at site of thrombosis.
133 - second disease is scarlet fever - aka scarlatina - caused by Strep pyogenes exotoxin - first described in 1626.
134 - Burkitt lymphoma is tumor manifesting at extranodal sites; associated with translocation of c-myc gene on chr 8 with IgH locus (chr 14) - kappa (chr 2) - or lambda light-chain (chr 22) locus; associated with EBV infection in African variety.
135 - Gordon’s maneuver is extensor plant response by squeezing the calf muscle suggesting upper motor neuron defect.
136 - Jones’s fracture is fracture at the base of the fifth metatarsal diaphysis.
137 - Hughes-Stovin syndrome is multiple pulmonary artery aneurysms with peripheral venous thrombosis.
138 - Siegrist streaks is linear hyperpigmented areas over choroidal vessels in hypertensive retinopathy.
139 - Blomstrand dysplasia is rare lethal disorder characterized by an increase in bone density and advanced skeletal maturationfrom inactivating mutation in PTHR-1 gene (also Jansen metaphyseal chondrodysplasia where there is an activating mutation).
140 - MELAS is mitochondrial encephalopathy with acidosis and stroke - onset in childhood - stroke-like episodes with hemiparesis - hemianopia - or cortical blindness; full expression of the disease leads to death often before age 20; 80-90% have point mutation in leucine tRNA in mtDNA.
141 - Hampton’s line is radiolucent collar of granulation tissue across the base of an ulcer.
142 - Clerambault’s syndrome is erotomania - delusional belief that someone (usually of higher social status) is in love with the person.
143 - Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is idiopathic inflammation of the cavernous sinus producing painful palsy of third - fourth - or sixth cranial nerve.
144 - Lundberg A wave is in ICP monitoring - waves that have a duration of 5-20 minutes and an amplitude of 50 mm Hg over the baseline ICP - after which ICP is reset to a higher baseline level; sign of severely compromised intracranial compliance and can result in significant decrease in cerebral perfusion pressure and herniation.
145 - Denver shunt is for treating refractory ascites - peritoneovenous shunt connecting peritoneum and central venous system - compare with LeVeen shunt; Denver shunt uses valve that lies within a fluid-filled - compressible silicone chamber.
146 - Dorello’s canal is location where the sixth nerve penetrates the dura - an area where the nerve is liable to injury.
147 - Hageman factor is factor XII.
148 - Reynold’s pentad is Charcot’s triad plus altered mental status and shock in cholangitis.
149 - Morton’s neuroma is interdigitial palmar neuroma.
150 - Castle intrinsic factor is intrinsic factor secreted by parietal cells - which binds luminal B12 and permits its absorption in the ileum.
151 - Kernig sign is first flex patient’s leg at both hip and knee - and then straighten knee; positive sign is pain and increased resistance to extending knee - suggesting meningeal irritation.
152 - Lisker’s sign is in thrombophlebitis or deep vein thrombosis - tenderness to percussion of the medial anterior tibial surface.
153 - Flatbush diabetes is GAD antibody negative diabetes in adult black subjects with diabetic ketoacidosis and increased frequency of human leukocyte antigen DR3 and DR4.
154 - Canavan disease is autosomal recessive infantile spongy degeneration of the brain with Alzheimer type II cells - increased prevalence among Ashkenazi from mutation in aspartoacylase leading to increased levels of N-acetylaspartic acid - described in 1931.
155 - Marie’s sign is fine tremor in hyperthyroidism.
156 - Wright’s stain is stain used for blood and bone marrow films.
157 - Morgagni - hydatids of is fallopian tube cysts found near the fimbriated end or in the broad ligaments.
158 - Zieve’s syndrome is jaundice - hyperlipemia - and hemolytic anemia in alcoholic liver disease; described in 1958.
159 - Cushing’s triad is signs of increased ICP 1. hypertension 2. bradycardia 3. irregular respirations.
160 - Meissner’s plexus is submucous plexus; innervates glandular epithelium - muscularis mucosa - intestinal endocrine cells - and submucosal blood vessels.
161 - Auerbach’s plexus is myenteric plexus - between the longitudinal and circular layers of muscle; provides motor innervation to the two muscle layers and secretomotor innervation to the mucosa.
162 - Magendie - foramen of is midline foramen exiting out of fourth ventricle.
163 - Bertin - renal columns of is the spaces between adjacent pyramids where cortical tissue extends into .
164 - Hutchinson-Guilford syndrome is aka progeria a condition in which the normal development of the first year is followed by gross retardation of growth - with a senile appearance characterized by dry wrinkled skin - total alopecia - and bird-like facies; genetics unclear.
165 - Stein-Leventhal syndrome is polycystic ovarian disease.
166 - Maroni sign is erythema of the skin overlying thyroid in hyperthyroidism.
167 - Lhermitte-Duclos disease is dysplastic cerebellar gangliocytoma; associated with germ line PTEN mutations; felt to be a part of multiple hamartoma syndrome or Cowden’s syndrome.
168 - Ball’s disease is intracerebral leukocytostasis - potentially fatal complication of acute leukemia (especially AML) when peripheral blast cell count >100 -000/uL; leukemic cells capable of invading through endothelium and causing hemorrhage into brain; not generally seen with CLL or CML.
169 - Costen’s syndrome is ear pain - tinnitus - impaired hearing - and dizziness from temporomandibular joint dysfunction.
170 - Bohr equation is Vd/Vt - for determining ratio of physiologic dead space.
171 - Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is focal dermal hypoplasia characterzied by widespread lesions of dermal hypoplsia with herniation of adipose tissue - streaks of pigmentary disturbance following lines of Blaschko - and severe absence deformities of bone - mental retardation - defects of optic nerve.
172 - Doi’s sign is elicitation of diminished deep tendon reflexes after maximal voluntary contraction in Lambert-Eaton syndrome.
173 - Kussmaul-Maier disease is old name for polyarteritis nodosa.
174 - Lafora’s disease is progressive myoclonus epilepsy - autosomal recessive - onset teenage years - characterized by seizures and cumulative neurological deterioration - death usually within ten years of first symptoms; associated with intracellular inclusions (Lafora bodies); associated with mutation in gene EPM2A.
175 - Kveim antigen is saline suspension of human sarcoid tissue prepared from spleen of an individual with active sarcoidosis; used in Kveim-Sitzbach test.
176 - Schick’s test is for testing immune status to Cornyebacterium diphtheriae - intradermal injection of 0.1 mL of purified standardized toxin; if no inflammation - antitoxin present.
177 - Swyer-James syndrome is in pediatrics - acquired hypoplastic lung that develops after severe obliterative bronchiolitis associated with bronchiolar obstruction - bronchiectasis - and distal air-space destruction.
178 - Kernohan notch is focal impression against the cerebral peduncle - pressure against notch in uncal herniation.
179 - stiff-man syndrome is chronic disorder of involuntary stiffness - painful muscle spasms - and rigidity - predominantly in the axial muscles; often occurs in conjunction with autoimmune diseases - particularly type I diabetes - associated with circulating antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase.
180 - Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome is aka progressive supranuclear palsy.
181 - Hollenhorst plaques is cholesterol emboli visible as small bright flecks lodged in arterial bifurcations in retina.
182 - Reinke crystals is in 25% of Leydig cell tumors - intracytoplasmic rod-shaped crystalloids.
183 - Heyde’s syndrome is association between bleeding from gastrointestinal angiodysplasia and severe aortic stenosis which may resolve with aortic valve replacement; may be explained by acquired type IIA von Willebrand’s syndrome; first described by Hyde in N Engl J Med 1958;259:196.
184 - Bannayan-Ruvalcaba-Riley syndrome is Bannayan-Zonana syndrome
185 - Brodman area is neuro anatomical classification of the cortex based on its cyto architecture into 52 areas; e.g. precentral gyrus Brodman 4 - striate cortex Brodman 17
186 - Dressler’s beat is fusion beat seen in ventricular tachycardia.
187 - Leydig cell tumors is testicular tumor derived from the stroma - may find Reinke crystals (q.v.).
188 - Jatene’s arterial switch is for treating transposition of great vessels - pulmonary artery and aorta are transected above valves and switched - and coronary arteries are moved from old aortic root to new aorta (former pulmonary root).
189 - Kartagener’s syndrome is a triad of sinusitis - bronchiectasis - and situs inversus; also associated with ciliary dysfunction; Manes Kartagener - Swiss physician - 1897-1975.
190 - Hippocratic fingers is clubbing.
191 - Oliver’s sign is in aortic aneurysm - pulsation of aorta felt through cricoid cartilage when chin is elevated.
192 - Brodie’s abscess is small - intraosseus abscess that frequently involves the cortex and is walled off by reactive bone.
193 - Spurling’s test is for diagnosing cervical radiculopathy - exerting downward pressure on the head while rotating the head towards the symptomatic side creating pain radiating into affected extremity.
194 - Parkland formula is total body surface area % burned x kg x 4; 1/2 in first 8 hours - second 1/2 given next 16 hours.
195 - farmer’s lung is hypersensitivity pneumonitis from exposure to antigens of microorganisms which colonize equipment used in farming - including from moldy hay - grain - silage ( e.g. thermophilic actinomycetes - fungus such as Aspergillus umbrosus).
196 - Drummond - marginal artery of is vessel which lies along mesenteric border of colon and supplies vasa recta; arises from right and left branches of middle colic artery and left and right colic arteries; also supplies collateral connection between superior and inferior mesenteric arteries.
197 - Heimlich maneuver is abdominal thrust maneuver for clearing airway (blocked by foreign object - e.g. food) described in 1974 by Henry Heimlich.
198 - Möbius’s sign is in Graves’s ophthalmopathy - failure of ocular convergence following close accommodation at a distance of 5 inches.
199 - Cheyne-Stokes breathing is regularly irregular pattern characterized by a progressive increase in the depth and at times frequency of respiration with a crescendo-decrescendo shape that eventually culminates in an apneic phase; seen in CHF but also in meningitis - CVA - pontine damage.
200 - Sly’s syndrome is mucopolysaccharidosis (VII) - from beta-glucoronidase deficiency - resulting in hepatosplenomegaly - physical deformity from defect in degradation of dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate.
201 - The Mentzer index is used to differentiate iron deficiency anemia from beta thalassemia. It is calculated from the results of a complete blood count. If the quotient of the mean corpuscular volume divided by the red blood cell count is less than 13, thalassemia is more likely. If the result is greater than 14, then iron-deficiency anemia is more likely.
202 - Myerson's sign is a medical condition where a patient is unable to resist blinking when tapped on the glabella, the area above the nose and between the eyebrows. It is often an early symptom of Parkinson's disease.
203 - Swedish porphyria is acute intermittent porphyria.
204 - Bornholm disease is coxsackie virus producing pleurodynia - fever - cough - sore throat - myalgias in shoulder - chest - and abdomen; Bornholm is a Danish island in Baltic sea.
205 - Hamman-Rich syndrome is acute interstitial pneumonia - a rare fulminant form of lung injury that presents acutely (days to weeks from onset of symptoms) - most commonly occurs in previously healthy individual - characterized by a temporally uniform lesion which reflects an episode of acute lung injury at a single point in time (different from usual interstitial pneumonia where lesions are different age); path shows diffuse alveolar damage (a nonspecific reaction pattern).
206 - Reichert’s cartilage is branchial arch 2.
207 - Potter’s sequence is from oligohydramnios (from e.g. renal agenesis - amniotic leak) leading to amnion nodosum - fetal compression which leads to pulmonary hypoplasia - altered facies - positioning defects of feet - hands - and breech presentation.
208 - CADASIL is cerebral autosomal dominant arteropathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy - rare hereditary cause of stroke that may involve Notch3 gene characterized by recurrent strokes (usually infarcts) and dementia.
209 - Bechterew’s disease is ankylosing spondylitis.
210 - Osler’s nodes is tender to painful - purplish - split pea-sized - subcutaneous nodules in the pulp of the fingers and/or toes and thenar and hypothenar eminences; transient - disappearing within several days (5% of patients); in acute bacterial endocarditis - associated with minute infective emboli; aspiration may reveal the causative organism; in subacute bacterial endocarditis - associated with immune complexes and small-vessel arteritis of skin.
211 - Eagle effect is failure of penicillin in streptococcal infection when bacteria aren’t growing - i.e. - beta-lactams being more effective against rapidly growing bacteria in the early stages and less effective as bacterial growth slows (described by Eagle in 1952).
212 - Ortner’s syndrome is hoarseness from compression of left recurrent laryngeal nerve by a greatly dilated left atrium (e.g. - in mitral stenosis) - enlarged tracheobronchial lymph nodes - and dilated pulmonary artery.
213 - Weber test is 512 Hz tuning fork placed on patients’s forehead; sound localizes towards side with conductive hearing loss; localizes away from the side with soensorineural loss.
214 - Hering - canals of is at the fringes of the portal tract - from the joining of bile canaliculi.
215 - Pott’s disease is tuberculous involvement of the spine; occurs in about 2% of TB cases.
216 - Hunter’s syndrome is mucopolysaccharidosis (II) - iduronate sulfatase deficiency - X-linked - affecting degradation of dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate - resulting in physical deformity and mental retardation - no corneal clouding.Hunter syndrome is A syndrome with variable manifestations exhibiting mainly microcephaly characteristic facies mental retardation short stature acral skeletal anomalies with occasional craniosynostosis and congenital heart defects.
217 - Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome is juvenile megaloblastic anemia - an autosomal recessive condition involving mutation in cubulin - receptor that binds IF-B12 complex; also associated with proteinuria.
218 - Jerusalem syndrome is psychosis affecting visitors to Jerusalem whereby afflicted develop psychotic religious delusions; affects a handful of visitors each year.
219 - Archibald’s sign is in pseudohypoparathyroidism of Albert’s hereditary osteodystrophy - characteristic shortening of the fourth and fifth digits as dimpling over the knuckles of a clenched fist.
220 - Susac syndrome is microangiopathy of the inner ear - retina - and brain leading to deafness - retinal artery occlusion - and encephalopathy.
221 - lockwood's operation - a type of LOW operation done for femoral hernia .
222 - raspberry tumor - other name for - umbilical adenoma - congenital .
223 - gibbon's hernia - hernia with hydrocele .
224 - moore's classification - classification of omphalocele ( exampholos ) .
225 - berger's hernia - hernia into the pouch of the douglas is called berger's hernia .
226 - guaiac test - used to test for occult blood in stool .
227 - spider leg appearance on IVP is suggestive of - RENAL CYST .
228 - flower vase pattern of the pelvis in an intravenous urogram is seen in - horse shoe kidney .
229 - golf hole ureter - seen in tuberculosis of the ureter .
230 - Fanconi’s syndrome is generalized dysfunction of proximal renal tubule leading to glycosuria - hyperphosphaturia - hypophasphatemia - aminoaciduria - and systemic acidosis; may be associated with out-dated tetracyclines.
231 - hangman’s fracture is fracture of pars interarticularis of C2 - hyperextension injury.
232 - Castellani’s paint is topical fungicidal and bactericidal mixture of resorcinol (8 g) - acetone (4 mL) - magenta (0.4 g) - phenol (4 g) - boric acid (0.8 g) - industrial methylated spirit 90% (8.5 mL) - and water (to 100 mL); particularly effective against intertriginous tinea and acute Candida paronychia; named after Sir Aldo Castellani.
233 - McDonald’s sign is uterine corpus and cervix can be easily flexed on each other due to Hegar’s sign.
234 - Paget’s disease of vulva is intraepithelial adenocarcinoma - less than 1% of all vulva malignancies.
235 - Finkelstein’s test is in de Quervain’s tenosynovitis - dorsal thumb pain when the wrist is deviated in an ulnar fashion and the thumb is flexed across the palm.
236 - Rotor’s syndrome is poorly defined defects in hepatic uptake and storage of bilirubin; resembles Dubin-Johnson syndrome - but liver pigment missing.
237 - Duffy blood group system is named after Mr. Duffy - a patient with hemophilia in whom anti-Fya was discovered by Cutbush in 1950; abbreviation Fy used because “Du” had already been taken; Fy6 antigen is the receptor for Plasmodium vivax.
238 - Dubin-Johnson syndrome is mostly conjugated hyperbilirubinemia from defect in transport of bilirubin and other organic anions across the canaliculus; other liver function tests normal; accumulation of dark pigment in liver lysosomes.
239 - Vincent’s infection is acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis - occurring in patients with decreased resistance to infection - from concurrent infection with the symbiotic bacteria Fusobacterium fusiforme and Borrelia vincentii.
240 - Dance’s sign is empty right lower quadrant in children with ileocecal intussusception.
241 - Pickwickian syndrome is obesity hypoventilation syndrome defined by extreme obesity and alveolar hypoventilation during wakefulness - characterized by hypersomnolence - dyspnea - hypoxemia (cyanosis - polycythemia - and plethora) - and pulmonary hypertension leading to RV failure and edema; based upon Charles Dickens’ book “The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club” and the character Joe who was a “wonderfully fat boy - standing upright with his eyes closed”.
242 - Voight - lines of is boundaries which delimit distribution area of main cutaneous nerves; seen in black and Asian skin and rarely in white subjects.
243 - Aaron's sign is a referred pain felt in the epigastrium upon continuous firm pressure over McBurney's point. It is indicative of appendicitis.Aaron's sign is named for Charles Dettie Aaron, an American gastroenterologist.
244 - Gianotti-Crosti syndrome is reactive exanthem - first described in association with hepatitis B infection (papular acrodermatitis of childhood - papular eruption on face and limbs); also associated with EBV - CMV infection.
245 - Claude’s syndrome is third nerve palsy combined with contralateral ataxia with midbrain infarction and injury to both red nucleus and superior cerebellar peduncle (includes signs of both Nothnagel’s and Benedikt’s syndrome).
246 - Parinaud’s syndrome is dorsal midbrain syndrome with supranuclear vertical gaze disorder from damage to posterior commissure with loss of upgaze - convergence-retraction nystagmus - downward ocular deviation - lid retraction - due to hydrocephalus from aqueductal stenosis - pineal region tumors.
247 - Fay sign is in carotid arteritis - pressure along the carotid causing pain to spread in distal branches of external carotid to jaw - ear - and temple.
248 - fox sign is seen in acute pancreatitis .Fox's sign is in hemorrhagic pancreatitis - ecchymosis of the inguinal ligament due to blood tracking from the retroperitoneum and collecting at the inguinal ligament.
249 - floating water lily sign is seen in x-ray of hydatid cyst of liver .
251 - Duncan’s disease is X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome - normal response to childhood infections but develop fatal lymphoproliferative disorders after infection with EBV; most patients with this syndrome die of infectious mononucleosis.
252 - Gerstmann syndrome is finger agnosia - agraphia - right-left disorientation - and dyscalculia.
253 - Jamaican vomiting sickness is poisoning from hypoglycin A in unripe ackee fruit; hypoglycin A is potent hypoglycemic agent that decreases rate of fatty-acid beta oxidation probably by inhibition of acyl dehydrogenase flavin-dependent oxidation; causes liver damage indistinguishable from Reye’s syndrome.
254 - Adie syndrome, sometimes known as Holmes-Adie's syndrome or Adie's Tonic Pupil, is a neurological disorder which affects the pupil of the eye and the autonomic nervous system.[1] It is caused by damage to the postganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic innervation of the eye, usually by a viral or bacterial infection which causes inflammation, and characterized by a tonically dilated pupil.Adie syndrome presents with three hallmark symptoms, namely abnormal pupil size, loss of deep tendon reflexes and diaphoresis.[1] Other signs may include hyperopia due to accommodative paresis, photophobia and difficulty reading.
255 - clay shoveler’s fracture is fracture of spinous process of C7.
256 - jacksonian march is in simple partial seizures - clonic movements of a single muscle group spreading to involve contiguous regions of the motor cortex.
257 - Goldenhar syndrome is syndrome of oculoauriculovertebral dysplasia characterized by unilateral deformity of the external ear and small ipsilateral half of the face with epibulbar lipodermoid and vertebral anomalies; autosomal dominant.
258 - Schwartz’s dictum is no acid - no ulcer.
259 - Young’s syndrome is clinical features similar to cystic fibrosis - including bronchiectasis - sinusitis - and obstructive azoospermia - but don’t have increased sweat chloride values - nor pancreatic insufficiency - nor abnormal nasal potential differences - nor the CF delta F508 mutation; affected individuals are often middle-aged males identified during evaluation for infertility.
260 - Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome is absence of vagina from abnormality of müllerian development.
261 - Lambert - canals of is direct accessory bronchioalveolar connections.
262 - Carnett’s test is head raise - tenderness persists in abdominal wall condition (rectus hematoma) whereas pain due to intraperitoneal disease lessens.
263 - Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is p^2 + 2pq + q^2 for describing the frequency of these genotypes; sexual reproduction doesn’t cause a constant reduction in genetic variation in each generation but remains constant.
264 - Pendred’s syndrome is autosomal recessive goiter and congenital sensorineural deafness from mutation in pendrin - a transport protein that affects organification of thyroglobulin; also malformations of cochlea and hypothyroidism (40%); pendrin involved in transport of chloride and iodide.
265 - Cullen’s sign is a faintly blue coloration particularly of umbilicus as the result of retroperitoneal bleeding from any cause - but especially in ruptured ectopic pregnancy; also seen in acute pancreatitis (1-2%).
266 - Jefferson fracture is fracture of C1 at more than one site; rarely associated with neurological deficits because of size of spinal canal at this level.
267 - Takayasu’s disease is aortic arch syndrome - pulseless disease; panartertis of the great vessels that’s most common in Asian women.
268 - baghdad boil - Leishmaniasis - This disease is also known as Leichmaniosis, Leishmaniose, leishmaniose, and formerly, Orient Boils, Baghdad Boil, kala azar, black fever, sandfly disease, Dum-Dum fever or espundia.Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites that belong to the genus Leishmania and is transmitted by the bite of certain species of sand fly, including flies in the genus Lutzomyia in the New World and Phlebotomus in the Old World. The disease was named in 1901 for the Scottish pathologist William Boog Leishman.
269 - Van Wyk-Grumbach syndrome is primary hypothyroidism associated with precocious puberty and galactorrhea.
270 - Destot’s sign is scrotal hematoma suggesting pelvic fracture.
271 - Rosenthal fibers is inclusions that develop in astrocytes in chronic reactive and neoplastic proliferations; abundant in Alexander’s disease.
272 - Klein-Waardenburg syndrome is Waardenburg syndrome type III.
273 - Boas’s sign is right subscapular pain due to cholelithiasis - <7%>
274 - Behçet’s disease is triad of aphthous ulcers - genital ulcerations - and ocular inflammation (posterior uveitis). Associated with erythema nodosum - cutaneous pustular vasculitis - also synovitis - CNS vasculitis involving brain stem - thrombophlebitis - and positive pathergy response. Described by Turkish dermatologist Behçet in 1937; also known as Silk Road disease due to clustering of cases along the Silk Road.
275 - Kaposi’s sarcoma is low-grade vascular tumor associated with HHV-8 - four forms - classic (older men of Mediterranean or Jewish extraction) - African - organ transplant-associated - and AIDS; differential for skin lesions includes bacillary angiomatosis from Bartonella.
276 - Charcot’s joints is neurogenic joint degeneration - can be secondary to syphilis - peripheral neuropathy.
277 - There are two sets of Charcot's triads, both of which are sets of clinical signs relating to quite separate diseases. One pertains to multiple sclerosis while the other refers to ascending cholangitis. Charcot's triads are named for Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893), the French neurologist who first described these combinations of signs in relation to these diseases.
Charcot's triad 1: The combination of nystagmus, intention tremor, and scanning or staccato speech. This triad is sometimes associated with multiple sclerosis but is not, however, as previously considered by some authors, pathognomonic for multiple sclerosis.
Charcot's triad 2: The combination of jaundice; fever, usually with rigors; and right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Occurs as a result of ascending cholangitis. When the presentation also includes hypotension and mental status changes, it is known as Reynolds' pentad.
278 - Rebuck skin window is dermal abrasion technique for testing tissue penetration of neutrophils - scraping forearm - then putting coverslip over it - checking glass for neutrophils.
279 - Mustard procedure is for treating transposition of great vessels - now rarely used; an atrial inversion procedure which connects RA to LV - which pumps out to pulmonary arteries - and connects LA to RV - which becomes systemic pump to aorta; variant uses pericardial or prosthetic intraatrial baffles.
280 - Stransky’s sign is involuntary dorsiflexion of the toes after firmly abducting the 5th digit for 2 seconds - and then acutely letting it go in upper motor neuron defects.
281 - Civatte bodies is aka colloid bodies; in lichen planus; anucleate - necrotic basal cells becoming incorporated into the inflamed papillary epidermis.
282 - Miller Fisher test is in normal pressure hydrocephalus - objective gait assessment before and after 30 cc CSF removed reflecting prognosis for shunting.
283 - Osler-Weber-Rendu disease is hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia - larger lesions can be a source of chronic blood loss - systemic emboli - hypoxemia - hepatic dysfunction - and a high-output cardiac failure; important risk factor for brain abscess - especially in affected patients with clubbing - cyanosis - and/or polycythemia; use aminocaproic acid (an antifibrinolytic agent).
284 - Rapoport-Luebering shunt is in red blood cells - pathway converting 1 -3-diphosphoglyceric acid to 2 -3-DPG and then to 3-phosphoglyceric acid; enzyme is diphosphoglycerate synthetase; 2 -3-DPG reduces affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen; 2 -3-DPG rises with alkalosis and decreases with acidosis - result of effect of pH on enzyme.
285 - Alexander’s disease is leukodystrophy-like neurodegenerative disease presenting in infancy or childhood; characterized by Rosenthal fibers.
286 - Hirschprung’s disease is megacolon; congenital disorder characterized by colonic dilatation proximal to an aganglionic - contracted distal colon and rectum; caused by gestational failure of neural crest cells to migrate to distal colon; an AD form has been reported with mutations of the RET gene - and an AR form with mutation of the endothelin-B-receptor gene.
287 - Looser’s zones is radiolucent narrow lines that lie either at right angles or obliquely to the cortical outlines of bones and often transect them; bilateral and symmetric - found at the axillary margins of the scapula - lower ribs - neck of the proximal femurs - and posterior regions of the proximal ulnas; related either to stress fractures or to mechanical erosion by penetrating nutrient arteries; aka Milkman’s fractures.
288 - Williams’s syndrome is supravalvular aortic stenosis - mental retardation - elfin facies - association with hypercalcemia due to abnormal sensitivity to vitamin D - idiopathic hypercalcemia of pregnancy - loquacious personality - abnormally sensitive hearing; from deletion in elastin gene and probably several adjacent genes.
289 - Burnett’s syndrome is far-advanced milk-alkali syndrome - due to long-standing calcium and alkali ingestion; severe hypercalcemia - irreversible renal failure - and phosphate retention - may be accompanied by ectopic calcification; also Cope’s syndrome.
290 - Prader-Willi syndrome is deletion of 15q11-q13 - paternally derived; uncontrollable hyperphagia after 12 months.
291 - Uhl’s anomaly is paper thin parietal myocardium - usually but not always limited to right ventricle - presents as heart failure in infancy or early childhood.
292 - Muir-Torre syndrome is patients with hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) who also develop benign or malignant sebaceous skin tumors (often basal cell or squamous cell).
293 - Gerhardt’s sign is in aortic regurgitation - pulsation of the spleen in the presence of splenomegaly; also Sailer’s sign.
294 - Volkmann contracture is sequelae of compartment syndrome where there is contraction of forearm flexors.
295 - Homer-Wright pseudorosettes is in neuroblastoma - tumor cells arranged about a central space filled with fibrillar extensions of the cells.
296 - Gilbert’s syndrome is with the exception of hemolytic anemias - most common cause of mild unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia from mild decrease glucoronyltransferase activity - responds to phenobarbital - affects up to 7% of population.
297 - Austrian triad is clinical triad of pneumococcal pneumonia - meningitis - and endocarditis (classically aortic valve endocarditis associated with aortic regurgitation); described by Robert Austrian.
298 - Chvostek’s sign is hypocalcemia - in latent tetany - tapping the facial nerve against the bone just anterior to the ear producing ipsilateral contraction of facial muscles.
299 - Eagle-Barrett syndrome is prune-belly syndrome with triad of abdominal muscle deficiency - urinary tract abnormalities - and cryptorchidism.
300 - Desçemet’s membrane is membrane that forms the deepest layer of the cornea and functions as thin basement membrane for endothelium; location where copper is deposited in Wilson’s disease Kayser-Fleischer rings.
301 - Degos disease is malignant atrophic papulosis; multisystem lymphocytic vasculitis characterized by thrombosis primarily of cutaneous small vessels as well as small vassels in GI tract - ocular - and CNS; has characteristic porcelain white atrophic lesion.
302 - Clara cells is cells found in the epithelium of terminal and respiratory bronchioles - devoid of cilia - present secretory granules in their apex and are known to secrete glycosoaminoglycans that probably protect the bronchiolar lining.
303 - Kikuchi’s disease is histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis - characterized by cervical lymphadenopathy with tenderness - fever - and night sweats; tends to occur in young women; histology can be confused with lymphoma.
304 - Retzius - veins of is numerous small veins in the retroperitoneum that connect the retroperitoneal viscera to the posterior abdominal wall; dilated in portal hypertension.
305 - Mounier-Kuhn syndrome is tracheomegaly - tracheobronchomegaly associated with recurrent pneumonia - copious purulent sputum production - hoarseness - load cough; presents in 30s-40s - more common in males; tracheal lumen increases with Valsalva; autosomal recessive.
306 - Marie-Strümpell disease is refers to ankylosing spondylitis in Europe.
307 - McMurray test is for diagnosing meniscal tear - passively flex hip and knee until heel touches buttock - steady the knee with one hand - externally rotate foot - then extend the knee to 90 degrees - return ot the beginning and then internally rotate the foot - then passively extend the knee to 90 degrees - feeling for clicks - PPV 83% for tears.
308 - Bateman’s senile purpura is purpura following trauma to severely sun-damaged skin of the dorsal forearm of elderly persons; months may be required for resolution of pigmentation from hemorrhage.
309 - RSH syndrome is Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.
310 - Burow’s solution is aluminum acetate in water - invented in mid-1800s by ophthalmologist Karl Burow (a.k.a. by its tradename Domeboro).
311 - Kupffer cells is phagocytic cells of the mononuclear phagocyte series found on the luminal surface of endothelial cells in hepatic sinusoids; they metabolize old RBCs - digest hemoglobin.
312 - Boston sign is in thyrotoxicosis - jerking of the lagging lid.
313 - Oppenheim’s sign is involuntary dorsiflexion of the toes when stroking the medial/anterior tibial surface superiorly to inferiorly - indicating upper motor neuron defect.
314 - Ross’s syndrome is tonic pupils (generally bilateral) - anhydrosis - and areflexia which may appear in a different pattern distribution; possible link with Holmes-Adie syndrome.
315 - Buerger’s sign is in peripheral vascular disease - red foot becomes pale with elevation.
316 - Hutchinson’s teeth is smaller and more widely spaced than normal and are notched on their biting surfaces; sign of congenital syphilis.the diagnostic criteria of the congenital syphilis are called the hutchinsons triad and they are
318 - Holmes-Adie syndrome is frequently affects young women - large - often irregular pupils - unilateral at onset as well as segmental palsy and segmental spontaneous movement of the iris - delayed constriction in response to near vision - delayed redilation after near vision - impaired accommodation - absent light reflex - and absent deep tendon reflexes; may be caused by degeneration of ciliary ganglion - followed by aberrant reinnervation of the pupilloconstrictor muscles.
319 - Felty’s syndrome is rheumatoid arthritis - splenomegaly - and neutropenia - and leg ulcers; associated with HLA-DR.
320 - Romaña’s sign is in the first week of Chagas disease - unilateral periorbital edema and swelling of the eyelid associated with reduviid bug of eye.
321 - Modigliani syndrome is thyroid in normal position but people with long curving necks enhance prominence and palpation of thyroid.
322 - Kew Gardens spotted fever is Rickettsialpox due to Rickettsia akari - from Kew Gardens - New York.
323 - Kennedy syndrome is X-linked spinobulbar muscular atrophy; from CAG repeat expansion encoding androgen receptor; leads to distal limb amyotrophy - bulbar signs - fasiculations prominent - androgen insensitivity with gynecomastia - testicular atrophy - and oligospermia.
324 - Berger’s disease is IgA nephropathy - ESRD develops in 15% of cases at 10 years and 20% at 20 years - treated with steroids in certain instances.
325 - Schwachman-Diamond syndrome is combination of neutropenia - metaphyseal dysplasia - and pancreatic insufficiency - associated with recurrent infections beginning in the first year of life in the sinuses - bones - lungs - skin and urinary tract; associated with increased risk of aplasia - myelodysplasia - and leukemia; life expectancy is 35 years.
326 - Thompson's test is verifies if gastroc-soleus complex intact; squeeze calf belly - foot should plantar flex.
327 - Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome is aka progressive supranuclear palsy.
328 - Bancroft’s sign is in deep vein thrombosis - compression of calf forward against tibia causing more pain than horizontal compression when gastrocnemius muscle is lifted; also referred to as Moses’s sign.
329 - Bang’s disease is brucellosis.
330 - Williams’s syndrome is supravalvular aortic stenosis - mental retardation - elfin facies - association with hypercalcemia due to abnormal sensitivity to vitamin D - idiopathic hypercalcemia of pregnancy - loquacious personality - abnormally sensitive hearing; from deletion in elastin gene and probably several adjacent genes.
331 - Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is X-linked characterized by triad of eczema - thrombocytopenia (from autoantibodies) - and repeated infections; small platelets (3-5 fL); failure to express sialic acid-rich glycoprotein - sialophorin or CD15 - ending in early death.
332 - Bowen’s disease is squamous cacrinoma in situ - seen generally on sun-exposed areas.
333 - Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is childhood seizure disorder associated with multiple seizure types (including drop attacks - atypical absences general tonic clonic seizures - and myoclonus) - slow generalized spike-and-slow-wave EEG - mental retardation - and resistant to standard anti-epileptic medications.
334 - de Musset’s sign is in aortic regurgitation - head bobbing - named after 19th century French poet who had luetic aortic insufficiency.
335 - Lassa fever is hemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa virus - first isolated in 1969 in Nigeria - an arenavirus - spread through contact with secretions (e.g. - urine) from infected rats; fatality 15-20% of hospitalized patients; can be treated with ribavirin.
336 - Froin’s syndrome is spinal block from tumor or inflammatory conditions - etc. causing increased protein in CSF - resulting in xanthochromia and increased coagulability in CSF.
337 - Pautrier’s microabcesses is q.v. Sézary-Lutzner cells.
338 - Markesbery distal myopathy is distal myopathy associated with rimmed vacuoles.
339 - Alexander’s law is peripheral vestibular nystagmus increases in intensity when the gaze is in the direction of the fast phase - and decreases in intensity when the gaze is away from the fast phase.
340 - Kocher’s maneuver is dissection of the duodenum from the right-sided peritoneal attachment to allow mobilization and visualization of the back of the duodenum/pancreas.(2nd part).
341 - Capgras syndrome is delusional belief that one or a few highly familiar people have been replaced by impostors who are physically very similar to the originals; seen rarely in schizophrenia.
342 - Mallory body is “alcoholic hyalin -” an eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion in liver cells that is characteristic of alcoholic liver disease but seen in many other conditions as well (e.g. - primary biliary cirrhosis - Wilson’s disease - chronic cholestatic syndromes - focal nodular hyperplasia - and hepatocellular carcinoma); inclusions composed largely of intermediate filaments of prekeratin.
343 - Forrester classification is in myocardial infarction - I - PWP<18>2.2 L/min/m2 - 2% mort; II - PWP>18 and CI>2.2 - 10% mort; III - CI<2.2>18 and CI<2.2>
344 - Paget’s disease of bone is osteitis deformans - characterized by initial osteolytic stage followed by a mixed osteoclastic-osteoblastic stage - which ends with osteoblastic activity and evolves into a burnt-out osteosclerotic stage; increased alkaline phosphatase and increased urine hydroxyproline.
345 - Hoover’s sign is a modification in the movement of the costal margins during respiration - caused by a flattening of the diaphragm; suggestive of empyema or other intrathoracic condition causing a change in the contour of the diaphragm.
346 - Maddrey discriminant function is for predicting mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis - Maddrey DF = 4.6 x (PT-control PT) + serum bilirubin; DF > 32 associated with high short-term mortality - 1 month mort 35% in absence of encephalopathy and 45% if encephalopathy present.
347 - Vater - ampulla is location where common bile duct enters the duodenum; described by German anatomist Vater (1684-1751).
348 - Starr-Edwards valve is ball and cage valve - oldest prosthetic valve in continuous use - first used in 1965.
349 - Nothnagel’s syndrome is injury to superior cerebellar peduncle causing ipsilateral oculomotor palsy and contralateral cerebellar ataxia.
350 - Martin-Lewis agar is variant of chocolate agar medium for growing Neisseria.
351 - Maffucci’s syndrome is enchondromatosis associated with soft tissue hemangiomas; associated with ovarian carcinomas and brain gliomas; essentially Ollier’s disease with hemangiomas.
352 - Heyde’s syndrome is association between bleeding from gastrointestinal angiodysplasia and severe aortic stenosis which may resolve with aortic valve replacement; may be explained by acquired type IIA von Willebrand’s syndrome; first described by Hyde in N Engl J Med 1958;259:196.
353 - Hansel’s stain is special stain used to detect eosinophiluria on the urine sediment.
354 - Conn’s syndrome is primary hyperaldosteronism - caused by an aldosterone-secreting tumor - resulting in hypertension - hypokalemia - hypernatremia - metabolic alkalosis - and low plasma renin.
355 - Kienböck disease is osteonecrosis of the carpal lunate that most commonly affects men between ages 20-40; sometimes history of trauma; may lead to end-stage arthritis of wrist with progression.
356 - Pancoast’s tumor is apical lung cancers in the superior pulmonary sulcus which invade neural structures around the trachea - including the cervical sympathetic plexus - leading to severe pain in distribution of the ulnar nerve and Horner’s syndrome on same side of the lesion.
357 - Ewing’s sarcoma is onion skinning; small round cell tumor of bone - 85% of cases there is a t(11;22)(q24:q12) translocation.
358 - Schafer’s maneuver is extensor plantar response by squeezing Achilles tendon suggesting upper motor neuron defect.
359 - Bernheim effect - reverse is in pulmonary embolism - right ventricular failure causing septum to bulge into and compromise left ventricular filling.
360 - Poiseuille’s law is flow proportional to fourth power of radius - inversely proportional to length.
361 - Lewis blood group system is named after Mrs. Lewis - pregnant woman in whom anti-Lea was discovered by Mourant in 1946; function of antigens in this system are unknown.
362 - Louis - angle of is sternal angle.
363 - Yuzpe regimen is ethinyl estradiol 100 mcg and levonorgestrel 0.5 mg taken twice -12 hours apart - reduces number of anticipated pregnancies by 75-80%.
364 - Kallman’s syndrome is anosmia; hypogonadotropic hypogonadism stemming from failure of LHRH-expressing neurons to migrate - etc.
365 - Tarlov cyst is perineural cyst found in the lower spinal cord.
366 - San Joaquin valley fever is coccidiomycosis (from infection with Coccidiomycosis imites).
367 - nerve endings is free includes Merkel cell associated: found in the epidermis as small aggregates called tactile corpuscles (Merkel cell has neural crest and squamous properties); encapsulated includes Meissner’s: asymmetrical - lamellated; Pacinian: symmetrical - lamellated; Ruffini: no lamellation.
368 - Bickerstaff’s encephalitis is brain stem encephalitis
369 - Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease is self-limiting hip disorder of children - 4-8 y.o. (M:F 8:1) involving vascular compromise of the capital femoral epiphysis; perhaps some aseptic necrosis action too.
370 - Raynaud’s phenomenon is exaggerated vascular response to cold temperatures or emotional stress - manifested by symmetrical - sharply demarcated color changes of the skin of the digits due to abnormal vasoconstriction of digital arteries and cutaneous arterioles.
371 - Trendelenburg position is position where angle of the head of bed or table is inclined at 45 degrees down; used in surgery to push the abdominal organs towards the chest.
372 - Scheie’s syndrome is mucopolysaccharidosis (I S) - from alpha-L-iduronidase deficiency (same as Hurler’s syndrome) - milder than Hurler’s syndrome - resulting in corneal clouding - stiff joints - aortic valve disease - normal intelligence and potentially normal life span.
373 - Councilman bodies is in apoptosis - hepatocytes that round up to form shrunken - pyknotic - and intensely eosinophilic bodies.A Councilman body, also known as a Councilman hyaline body, is an eosinophilic globule often found in the liver of individuals suffering from yellow fever. Each Councilman body results from the apoptotic death of a single liver cell.Until recently the presence of Councilman bodies in a liver biopsy was thought to be sufficient evidence for a diagnosis of yellow fever. However, they have since been found also to be present in other viral hemorrhagic fevers along with acute viral hepatitis, and thus may no longer be considered as diagnostic for yellow fever.
Councilman bodies are named after American pathologist William T. Councilman (1854-1933), who discovered them.
374 - Cockcroft-Gault formula is for calculating clearance based on creatinine - age - weight: [(140-age) x lean body weight (in kg)]/[plasma creatinine (in mg/dL) x 72]; in women - multipled by 0.85 because of smaller muscle mass.
375 - Riedel’s thyroiditis is unknown etiology - marked by glandular atrophy - hypothyroidism - and replacement of the thyroid by fibrous tissue with adhesion to surrounding structures.
376 - Nägele’s rule is means of estimating date of delivery by counting back 3 months from the first day of the last menstrual period and adding seven days; full term 38 weeks after fertilization - 40 weeks after LNMP.
377 - St. Jude valve is prosthetic valve - bileaflet - with two semicircular discs that pivot between open and closed positions without supporting struts - first used in 1977.
378 - Dercum’s disease is adipositas dolorsa - condition tending to affect obese women in middle age - mostly menopausal - consisting of multiple exquisitely tender lipomas.
379 - Gower’s maneuver is Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy - patient using hands to help himself get up.
380 - Weil’s disease is severe form of leptospirosis with hepatic dysfunction - renal dysfunction - and hemorrhage.
381 - Parinaud’s oculoglandular syndrome is preauricular node enlargement associated with chronic granulomatous conjunctivitis; atypical form of cat scratch disease from inoculation near eye.
382 - Reinke’s edema is vocal cord polyposis in female smokers - 50s-70s.
383 - Rosenthal fibers is inclusions that develop in astrocytes in chronic reactive and neoplastic proliferations; abundant in Alexander’s disease.
384 - Fontan procedure is for treating tricuspid atresia - pulmonary atresia - or hypoplastic left heart syndrome - procedure developed in 1968 whereby IVC is connected to pulmonary artery; long term complications include arrhythmias and protein losing enteropathy because of edema in liver and small bowel.
385 - Gleason score is prostate cancers stratified into 5 grades on basis of glandular patterns and degree of differentiation; grade 1 most differentiated and grade 5 no glandular differentiation; primary score and secondary score (for second most common histology) added together for score; therefore most differentiated tumor score of 2.
386 - Gianotti-Crosti syndrome is reactive exanthem - first described in association with hepatitis B infection (papular acrodermatitis of childhood - papular eruption on face and limbs); also associated with EBV - CMV infection.
387 - Naxos disease is initially described on Greek island of Naxos - synrome of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy - non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma - and woolly hair - due to deletion in plakoglobin - protein in adherens and desmosomal junctions.
388 - Carney complex is AD complex of cardiac myxomas with aggressive biologic behavior - spotty pigmentation - and association with endocrine tumors (causing e.g. - Cushing syndrome); mutations in PRKAR1alpha gene (a protein kinase) account for half of the cases; unrelated to Carney syndrome.
389 - Klinger disease is Wegener’s disease; first described by Heinz Klinger in 1931 as a medical student and then described by Friederic Wegener in 1936.
390 - Paget’s disease of breast is breast cancer involving nipple and areola - appears as eczematous rash over breast with crusting - scaling - or erosion.
391 - Von Recklinghausen’s disease is neurofibromatosis.
392 - Calot’s triangle is the area bordered by the 1. cystic duct - 2. common hepatic duct - 3. lower edge of the liver; cystic artery - sometimes hepatic artery found here.
393 - Von Willebrand factor is vWF bridges collagen and platelets and favors platelet aggregation - ensuring platelet and vessel wall interactions; glycoprotein Ib-IX major receptor for vWF; vWF also serves as carrier for factor VIII; made in endothelial cells and megakaryocytes.
394 - Zenker’s diverticulum is a pharyngeal diverticulum from premature contraction of the cricopharyngeus muscle on swallowing - leads to progressive UES narrowing - leading to a posteriorly directed hypopharynx; causes progressive food stasis and dysphagia.
395 - D’Espine’s sign is breath sounds louder over C7 than adjacent lung - suggests lesion in posterior mediastinum - e.g. lymphoma - tuberculosis - etc.
396 - Warthin-Finkeldey cells is in measles pneumonia - cells with multiple nuclei and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions.
397 - Cabrera’s sign is in left bundle branch block complicated by MI - notching at 0.05 s in ascending limb of S wave in V3 - V4; 27% sens for MI.
398 - Curling’s ulcers is stress erosions and ulcers occurring in the proximal duodenum and associated with severe burns or trauma - from ischemia of the gastric mucosa.
399 - Roger’s disease is small congenital VSD defect <0.5>
400 - Best disease is vitelliform macular dystrophy type 2 (VMD2) - characterized by gradual loss of visual acuity starting in their teenage years; accumulation of lipofuscin in retinal pigment epithelium; markedly abnormal electro-oculogram (EOG) in all stages of progression and in phenotypically normal carriers; autosomal dominant - from mutation in VMD2 gene; first described in 1905.
401 - PANDAS is Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections. Consists of tics - movement disorders - emotional-lability - and obsessive-compulsive behavior associated with streptococcal infection. Caused by IgG antibodies which recognize group A streptococcal cell wall proteins as well as neuronal cytoplasmic antigens of the basal ganglia. Related to Sydenham's chorea.
402 - Haldane effect is deoxygenated hemoglobin having a greater affinity for CO2 than oxygenated hemoglobin.
403 - Brugada syndrome is defect in an ion channel gene resulting in abnormal electrophysiologic activity in the right ventricle and characterized by (1) ST segment elevation in V1-V3 - (2) right bundle branch block - (3) sudden cardiac death - (4) grossly normal heart.
404 - ASPEN syndrome is Association of Sickle cell disease - Priapism (usually major) - Exchange transfusion - Neurological events including headache - lethargy - and seizures; may be due to abrupt cerebral hypoxemia from too-rapid exchange or release of vasoactive cytokines released from penile blood vessels; described in J Urol. 1993; 150:1480-1482.
405 - Wright’s stain is stain used for blood and bone marrow films.
406 - Mibelli - porokeratosis of is classic porokeratosis - localized - chronically progressive - hyperkeratotic - irregular plaques with central atrophy and prominent peripheral keratotic ridge; characterized pathologically by presence of cornoid lamella.
407 - Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome is disease of neuromuscular junction associated with paraneoplastic process with proximal muscle weakness that improves with repetitive stimulation; associated with P/Q type presynaptic voltage-gated calcium channel antibodies; 70% have malignancy - usually small cell cancer.
408 - Heberden’s nodes is characteristic in women - but not in men - represent prominent osteophytes at the DIP joints in osteoarthritis (enlargements of tubercles at the articular extremities of the distal phalanges.
409 - Pick bodies is in neurons - cytoplasmic - round to oval - filamentous inclusions that strongly stain with silver - weakly eosinophilic; composed of neurofilaments - vesiculated endoplasmic reticulum - and paired helical filaments that are immunocytochemically similar to those found in Alzheimer’s; don’t survive death of host neuron like they do in Alzheimer’s.
410 - Monteggia fracture is fracture of the proximal third of the ulna with a dislocation of radial head.
411 - Krabbe’s disease is AR sphingolipidosis (sulfatidose) - from beta-galactosidase deficiency - resulting in increased galactocerebrosides - mental retardation - blindness - deafness - paralysis - convulsions - total absence of myelin - globoid bodies in white matter of brain - fatal in early life.
412 - Tourette’s syndrome is chronic multiple motor and verbal tics - symptoms typically begin before 21 y.o. - first signs motor tics in 80% and vocal tics in 20% but eventually both motor and vocal; higher than expected number of left-handedness and ambidexterity; 40-50% involve self-mutilation such as nail-biting - hair-pulling - etc.
413 - Fletcher factor is prekallikrein; in intrinsic phase of coagulation - converts XII to XIIa; deficiency results in elevated PTT but with no clinical bleeding.
414 - Ellsworth-Howard test is for diagnosis of pseudohypoparathyroidism by assessing response to exogenous PTH.
415 - moyamoya disease is occlusive disease involving large intracranial arteries - especially the distal ICA and stem of the MCA and ACA; “puff of smoke” (in Japanese - moya moya) appearance on angiography from lenticulostriate arteries developing rich collateral circulation around the middle cerebral occlusion that; anticoagulation risky because of occurrence of SAH from rupture of the transdural anastomotic channels.
416 - Senear-Usher syndrome is pemphigus erythematosus; a localized variety of pemphigus foliaceus confined to seborrheic sites.
417 - Tangier disease is rare recessive disease characterized by enlarged orange tonsils - peripheral neuropathy affecting small fibers involved in pain and temperature - and a near-complete absence of HDL-cholesterol; ABC1 - the ATP binding-cassette transporter 1 gene - mutated in Tagier disease; gene mediates efflux of cholesterol from cells; named after small island in Chesapeake Bay where disease first identified in five-year-old boy.
418 - factor V Leiden is Arg(506)->Gln - results in resistance to cleavage by activated protein C (an anticoagulant) - found in 20% of patients with venous thromboembolism - 6% of U.S. population.
419 - Miller Fisher syndrome is variant of Guillain-Barré where cranial nerves are affected - leading to triad of ataxia - areflexia and ophthalmoplegia; cross-reacting antibodies to GQ1b ganglioside have been found; triggered by certain strains of C. jejuni.
420 - Hutchinson’s sign is pigment in the paronychial area suggesting melanoma.
421 - Spanish flu is 1918 influenza with 20-100 million deaths worldwide with 2.5% mortality (influenza normally 0.1% mortality).
422 - Wernicke’s area is important cortical center for recognizing speech - found in the superior temporal gyrus; communicates with Broca’s area with arcuate fasciulus.
423 - Cruveihiler-Baumgarten bruit is bruit heard over caput medusa in portal hypertension.
424 - Dacie’s syndrome is idiopathic hyperplastic enlargement of the spleen with anemia and neutropenia; progression to lymphoma in some cases.
425 - Forscheimer spots is in rubella - punctate soft palate macules.
426 - Sudeck’s syndrome is reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome occurring in older people characterized by cystic changes and subchondral erosion in bone - diffuse osteoporosis - and muscle atrophy - but not necessarily associated with trauma.
427 - Denver shunt is for treating refractory ascites - peritoneovenous shunt connecting peritoneum and central venous system - compare with LeVeen shunt; Denver shunt uses valve that lies within a fluid-filled - compressible silicone chamber.
428 - Schilder’s disease is adrenoleukodystrophy - X-linked disorder - presents in childhood with weakness - spasticity - leading to dementia - blindness - and quadriparesis - associated with adrenal insufficiency; from defect in beta-oxidation of fatty acids in peroxisomes leading to accumulation of very long-chain saturated fatty acids.
429 - Kulchitsky’s cells is neuroendocrine argentaffin cells present along the bronchial epithelium - particularly in the fetus and neonate; small cell carcinoma has granules similar to Kulchitsky’s cells; origin of carcinoid tumors.
430 - Boxer’s fracture is fracture of the metacarpal neck - classically of small finger.
431 - Erb’s palsy is upper plexus palsy affecting C5 and C6 and +/- C7 nerve roots. lower brachial plexus palsy is called klumpke's palsy .
432 - Denys-Drash syndrome is gonadal dysgenesis (male pseudohermaphroditism) and nephropathy leading to renal failure with increased risk of Wilms’s tumor; dominant negative missense mutation of WT-1.
433 - Hers disease is type VI glycogen storage disease - deficiency in liver phosphorylase; presents as hepatomegaly and growth retardation; hypoglycemic - hyperlipidemia - and hyperketosis usually mild if present; hepatomegaly and growth retardation improve with age and usually disppear at puberty.
434 - Trendelenburg’s gait is waddling gait in people with weakness or paresis of gluteal muscles; seen in progressive muscular dystrophy.
435 - Cori’s disease is glycogen storage disease type III - deficiency in debranching enzyme - amylo-1 -6-glucosidase - leading to variable accumulation of glycogen in the liver - heart - or skeletal muscle - characterized by stunted growth - hepatomegaly - and hypoglycemia.
436 - Lafora’s disease is progressive myoclonus epilepsy - autosomal recessive - onset teenage years - characterized by seizures and cumulative neurological deterioration - death usually within ten years of first symptoms; associated with intracellular inclusions (Lafora bodies); associated with mutation in gene EPM2A.
437 - Bruton’s tyrosine kinase is mutation causes X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA also associated with defect in intact membrane-bound m chain (it’s essential for B-cell development) Btk found only in B cells
438 - Call-Fleming syndrome is sudden-onset severe headache - focal neurological deficits - and seizures; associated with serotonin modulating drugs like SSRIs.
439 - dimple sign is in dermatofibroma - lateral compression with thumb and index finger produces a depression - or “dimple.”
440 - Nissen fundoplication is for treating gastroesophageal reflux disease - surrounding lower end of esophagus with cuff of gastric fundal muscle to increase lower esophageal sphincter competence.
441 - "Dawson's Fingers" is a condition affecting the brain of Multiple Sclerosis patients. The condition is the result of inflamation around long axis of medular veins. This results in a finger-like appearance of the lesions extending mainly off the ventricles within the brain. The term is named for histologist James Walker Dawson, who first defined the condition .
442 - Ebstein’s anomaly is malformation characterized by the downward displacement of the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle due to anomalous attachment of the tricuspid leaflets; associated with maternal exposure to Li.
443 - Döhle bodies are light blue-gray, basophilic, leukocyte inclusions located in the peripheral cytoplasm of neutrophils. They measure 1-3 µm in diameter. Not much is known about their formation. They are named after German pathologist, Karl Gottfried Paul Döhle (1855-1928)
They are seen in:
* Burns
* Infections
* Physical trauma
* Neoplastic diseases
* Wissler’s disease
* May-Hegglin’s anomaly
* Chédiak-Steinbrinck-Higashi’s syndrome.
444 - Sipple’s syndrome is MEN type IIa; pheochromocytoma - medullary carcinoma of the thyroid - and hyperparathyroidism due to hyperplasia or tumor.
445 - Stroop test is stress test - also used for checking frontal function - where patients are tested for the ability to read off the text color of text spelling potentially different colors.
446 - Montgomery - glands of is sebaceous glands of areola.
447 - Goodell's sign is an indication of pregnancy. It is a significant softening of the vaginal portion of the cervix.
448 - Brunner’s glands is in duodenum - submucosal mucous glands that secrete bicarbonate - glycoproteins - and pepsinogen II - virtually indistinguishable from pyloric mucous glands.
449 - Grafenberg spot is erogenous area in anterior vaginal wall ( also called G SPOT ) .
450 - Goodsall's rule is applied to the examination of anal fistula. It states that if the fistula lies in the anterior half of the anal area then it opens directly into the anal canal, while if a fistula lies in the posterior half of the canal then it tracks around the anus laterally and opens into the midline posteriorly.
451 - Rothmann-Makai syndrome is a variant of idiopathic lobular panniculitis seen in infants - tends to be localized and spontaneously resolves; associated with autoimmune diseases such as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis - diabetes - and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.
452 - Lugol’s solution is 5% iodine and 10% KI - a dose of 6.3 mg of I per drop - for giving iodine.
453 - Stoppa repair is hernia repair using tension-free intraparietal prosthetic mesh.
454 - Auenbrugger’s sign is epigastric bulge due to a massive pericardial effusion.
455 - Zahn - lines of is thrombi formed within a cardiac chamber or the aorta - may have apparent laminations - produced by alternating layers of paler platelets admixed with some fibrin - separated by darker layers containing more red cells.
456 - Cagot ear is absence of ear lobe; assocated with region in Pyrennes.
457 - Ham’s test is for diagnosing paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria - uses increased sensitivity of PNH-affected RBCs to lysis by complement; introduced in late 1930s.
458 - Forscheimer spots is in rubella - punctate soft palate macules.
459 - Apley grind test is for meniscal tears - flex patient’s leg to 90 degrees - then grind the tibial condyles against the femoral condyles with rotation motion in the varus and then valgus positions.
460 - clay shoveler’s fracture is fracture of spinous process of C7.
461 - Christmas disease is hemophilia B - deficiency in factor IX.
462 - de Quervain’s disease is a stenosing tenosynovitis of the thumb extensors and abductors; pain elicited with Finkelstein’s test.
463 - Munchausen’s syndrome is factitious disorder - eponym given by Asher in 1951 after Baron Karl Munchausen (1720-1797) - retired German cavalry officer with a reputation for preposterous stories about his activities as a soldier - hunter.
464 - MacCallum’s plaques is irregular thickenings - usually in the left atrium - from subendocardial lesions - usually exacerbated by regurgitant jets.
465 -POEMS syndrome is polyneuropathy - organomegaly - endocrinopahty - M protein - and skin changes which may be seen in plasma cell dyscrasias; also known as Crow-Fukase syndrome in Japan.
466 - Santorini’s fissures is fissures in anterior aspect of cartilaginous portion of ear canal through which neurovascular tissues pass; may allow spread of ear disease to parotid joint - TMJ - soft tissues of upper neck.
467 - Glauber’s salt is sodium sulfate - laxative.
468 - Hampton's hump, also Hampton hump, is a radiologic sign seen on chest X-rays indicating pulmonary infarction and classically due to pulmonary embolism induced atelectasis.
It consists of a pleura based shallow wedge-shaped consolidation in the lung periphery with the base against the pleural surface. It is named after Aubrey Otis Hampton.
469 - In chest radiography, the Westermark Sign, is a sign that represents a focus of oligemia (vasoconstriction) seen distal to a pulmonary embolus (PE).[1] While the chest x-ray is abnormal in the majority of PE cases, the Westermark sign is seen in only 2% of patients.[2]
The sign results from a combination of:
1. the dilation of the pulmonary arteries proximal to the embolus and
2. the collapse of the distal vasculature creating the appearance of a sharp cut off on chest radiography.
470 - Wickham’s striae is in lichen planus - papules are highlighted by a shiny surface with a lacy white pattern.
471 - Döhle bodies is irregularly shaped greenish inclusions in neutrophil cytoplasm - consisting of ribosomes and/or rough ER and are seen in severe bacterial infections.
472 - Silk Road disease is Behçet’s disease.
473 - Herring bodies is neurosecretory granules consisting of either vasopressin or oxytocin in neurohypophysis.
474 - Unna boot is compression dressing impregnated with medication for treating venous stasis ulcers; named after Paul Gerson Unna - German dermatologist 1850-1929.
475 - Rigler's sign, also known as the double wall sign, is seen on an x-ray of the abdomen when air is present on both sides of the intestine; a Rigler's sign is present when air is present on the inside (lumenal side) and the outside (peritoneal side). Air in the peritoneum is considered abnormal, unless the patient had a recent abdominal surgery.
A false double wall sign can result from two loops of bowel being in contact with one another.
476 - Muckle-Wells syndrome is syndrome of urticaria - progressive perceptive deafness - and amyloidosis; from mutation in cryopyrin; autosomal dominant; of note familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome - commonly known as familial cold urticaria - characterized by intermittent episodes of rash - arthralgia - fever and conjunctivitis after generalized exposure to cold is also associated with mutations in cryopyrin.
477 - Birbeck’s granules is aka Langerhans’s granules; a small tennis racket-shaped membrane-bound granule with characteristic cross-striated internal ultrastructure seen in Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
478 - Sellick’s maneuver is cricoid pressure during intubation.
479 - The football sign refers to a large oval radiolucency in the shape of an American football, which is seen on supine abdominal X-ray films. The football sign is most frequently seen in infants with spontaneous or iatrogenic gastric perforation causing pneumoperitoneum.
480 - Wenckebach block is second-degree AV blcok - Mobitz type I.
481 - Willis - circle of is cerebral arterial circle - an anastomosis between the two vertebral and two internal carotid arteries.
482 - Leriche’s syndrome is aortoiliac occlusive disease producing distal ischemic symptoms and signs - e.g. pulseless femoral artery: 1. claudication of buttocks - 2. impotence - 3. atrophy of buttocks (seen with iliac occlusive disease).
483 - Riddoch’s sign is in cerebellar disease - with outstretched hands - the hand on the affected side begins to hyperpronate - so that the palm faces outward - and rises above the level of the other hand.
484 - Jumping Frenchmen of Maine syndrome is unusually extreme startle reaction that occurs in selected populations with reactions including echolalia - echopraxia; first described in French Canadian lumberjacks in the Moosehead Lake Region of Maine in the late 19th century; also described as latah in Malaysia.
485 - Quincke's sign - pulsation of the capillary bed in the nail - seen in aortic regurgitation .
486 - Reynolds' pentad is a collection of signs and symptoms suggesting the diagnosis of septic (ascending) cholangitis, a serious infection of the biliary system. It is a combination of Charcot's triad (jaundice, fever, abdominal pain) with hypotension (shock - low blood pressure) and an altered mental state. It was named after the surgeon, B.M. Reynolds, who described it.
487 - Pfeiffer syndrome is craniosynostoses as well as limb defects - mutations in FGFR1 - broad thumbs - broad great toes.
488 - Monro-Kellie doctrine is cranial cavity is a closed rigid box - change in the amount of intracranial blood can occur only through changes in CSF quanitity.
489 - Edinger-Westphal nucleus is part of the cranial nerve III complex involved in direct and consensual light reflex involved in efferent limb of reflex arc.
490 - Rovsing's sign is a sign of appendicitis. If palpation of the lower left quadrant of a person's abdomen results in more pain in the right lower quadrant, the patient is said to have a positive Rovsing's sign and may have appendicitis.
This anomaly occurs because the pain nerves deep in the intestines do not localize well to an exact spot on the abdominal wall, unlike pain nerves in muscles. Pain from a stomach ulcer or gallstone can be interpreted by the brain as pain from the stomach, liver, gall bladder, duodenum, or first part of the small intestine. It will "refer" pain often to the mid upper abdomen.
Because the appendix is a piece of intestine, it follows a similar referral pattern.
491 - Sappey - veins of is retroperitoneal veins located around liver and diaphragm connecting epigastric and internal mammary veins with azygos and which become dilated in portal hypertension.
492 - Tinel's sign is a way to detect irritated nerves. It is performed by lightly tapping (percussing) over the nerve to elicit a sensation of tingling or "pins and needles" in the distribution of the nerve.
For example, in carpal tunnel syndrome where median nerve is compressed at the wrist, Tinel's sign is often "positive" causing tingling in the thumb, index, and middle finger. Tinel's sign is sometimes referred to as "distal tingling on percussion" or DTP.
493 - Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia caused by conduction through abnormal accessory bypass tract (bundle of Kent) between atria and ventricles characterized by triad of 1. wide QRS complex - 2. relatively short PR interval - 3. slurring of initial part of QRS delta wave; in familial WPW - associated with mutation in gamma2 regulatory subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (PRKAG2).
494 - Lowenberg’s sign is in deep vein thrombosis - two calves are wrapped with cuffs to if there is assymetry in tolerance to pressure of 180 mm Hg.
495 - Hoffmann's sign, named after the German neurologist, Johann Hoffmann (born 1857, Rheinhesse; died 1919, Heidelberg), is a finding elicited by a reflex test which verifies the presence or absence of problems in the corticospinal tract. It is also known as the finger flexor reflex.
The test involves tapping the nail or flicking the terminal phalanx of the third or fourth finger. A positive response is seen with flexion of the terminal phalanx of the thumb.
496 - Sipple’s syndrome is MEN type IIa; pheochromacytoma - medullary carcinoma of the thyroid - and hyperparathyroidism due to hyperplasia or tumor.
497 - Heister - spiral valves of is found in the neck of the gallbladder - where tiny folds of mucosal epithelium coalesce to form these valves - may assist in retaining bile between meals.
498 - McConnell’s sign is in acute pulmonary embolism - distinct regional pattern of RV dysfunction - with akinesia of the mid-free wall but normal motion at the apex - 77% sensitive - 94% specific for PE.
499 - Occam’s razor is described in 14th century - “plurality must not be posited without necessity -” in other words - parsimony in diagnosis.
500 - Wallenberg syndrome is infarction in posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) - lateral medulla 1. lesion in nucleus ambiguus - difficulty in swallowing and hoarseness - loss of gag reflex 2. vestibular nucleus - dizziness and nystagmus 3. trigeminal - loss of pain and temperature on ipsilateral 4. inferior cerebellar peduncle - ipsilateral limb ataxia 5. anterolateral system - reduced pain and temperature on contralateral limb 6. ipsilateral Horner’s syndrome hiccup - for reasons not known solitary nucleus may also be destroyed - leading to loss of taste on ipsilateral half of tongue.

501 - Gaucher’s disease is autosomal recessive sphingolipidosis (sulfatidose) - mutations in glucocerebrosidase gene on 1q21 (also known as acid beta-glucosidase) - enzyme cleaves glucose residue from ceramide - frequently fatal; type I - chronic non-neuronopathic form - splenic and skeletal involvement; can be treated with infusions of macrophage-targeted human placental glucoerebrosidase - alglucerase (Ceredase) - use described in 1991.
502 - Leiner’s disease is seborrheic erythroderma associated with diarrhea and failure to thrive and to generate C5a chemotactic factor.
503 - Roth’s spots is in bacterial endocarditis and other retinal hemorrhagic conditions - a round white spot surrounded by hemorrhage (secondary to microemboli in endocarditis).
504 - Oddi - sphincter of is sphincter around opening of common bile duct into the duodenum; Oddi - Italian anatomist and surgeon (1864-1913).
505 - Proteus syndrome is congenital condition characterized by generalized - unilateral - or localized overgrowth of any tissue type - hemihypertrophy - lymphangiomas - lipomas - hemangiomata macrocephaly; thought that Joseph Merrick - the “Elephant Man” may have had this condition rather than neurofibromatosis.
506 - Yergason’s sign is in biceps tendinitis or shoulder impingement - worsening of pain with resisted supination while the elbow is flexed to 90 degrees - arm adducted.
507 - Pontiac fever is nonpneumonic legionellosis.
508 - Hoigne reaction is pseudoanaphylactic reaction - complication associated with intramuscular procaine penicillin - occurs in 1/1000 patients; characterized by tachycardia - elevated blood pressure - fear of imminent death - violent combativeness - unusual taste sensation - auditory or visual disturbances; rarely lasts longer than 30 min; felt to be due to inadvertent intracapillary infusion resulting in microembolization.
509 - gamekeeper’s thumb is injury to ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb.
510 - Pierre Robin syndrome is micrognathia and abnormal smallness of the tongue - mandibular hypoplasia with respiratory and feeding difficulties - posteriorly displaced mandible(retrognathia)- posteriorly displaced tongue ( glossoptosis ) - often with isolated cleft palate - severe myopia - congenital glaucoma - and retinal detachment; French pediatrician - 1867-1950.
511 - Romaña’s sign is in the first week of Chagas disease - unilateral periorbital edema and swelling of the eyelid associated with reduviid bug of eye.
512 - Kerandel’s hyperesthesia is in African trypanosomiasis - excruciating pain after minor soft-tissue injury - e.g. in palms and ulnar region.
513 - Pap smear is developed by Papanicolaou - reported in 1941 - used for screening cervical cancer.
514 - Boerhaave’s syndrome is pressure rupture of the esophagus; can give rise to Hamman’s sign. patient presents with acute chest pain and the treatment is surgical . full thickness tear of the esophagus which leads to spillage of contents into mediastinum .
515 - Welander distal myopathy is distal myopathy seen in Sweden and Finland.
516 - Sippy powders is for treating peptic ulcer disease in early 1900s - powder containing 600 mg of magnesium carbonate and 600 mg sodium bicarbonate alternating with a powder containing 600 mg of bismuth subcarbonate and 1200 to 1800 mg of sodium bicarbonate; associated with milk alkali syndrome.
517 - valves of hasner - valves at the opening of the nasolacrimal duct in the inferior meatus .
518 - Terson’s syndrome is intra-vitreous hemorrhage associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage.
519 - Virchow-Robin spaces, or enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) are spaces (often only potential) that surround blood vessels for a short distance as they enter the brain. Their wall is formed by prolongations of the pia mater. They contain macrophages and lymphocytes and have been suggested to be the site of entry for these cells of the immune system to the CSF.The spaces function as pathways for the drainage of interstitial fluid, are in direct connection with the subpial space, separated by a single layer of pia mater from the subarachnoid space and are in communication with lymphatic channels of the head and neck, leading to cervical lymph nodes.Virchow-Robin spaces are also called His' perivascular spaces and perivascular spaces. They are named after Rudolf Virchow and Charles-Philippe Robin (French anatomist, 1821–1885).This space is involved in Perivascular Cuffing seen in Meningoencephalitis & Encephalitis where there are infiltrates of mononuclear cells.
520 - Mönckeberg’s arteriosclerosis is ring-like calcifications within the media of medium-sized to small muscular arteries (femoral - tibial - radial - and ulnar arteries - genital arteries) - occurs almost exclusively in individuals over 50 years old; doesn’t narrow lumen - distinct from atherosclerosis.
521 - Sandhoff’s disease is GM2 gangliosidosis - from mutation in beta subunit of both hexosaminidase A and B; clinically similar as Tay-Sachs but more rapid progression of disease.
522 - Fabry’s disease is X-linked recessive sphingolipidosis (sulfatidose) alpha-galactosidase deficiency resulting in increased globosides - reddish-purple skin rash - kidney and heart failure - peripheral neuropathy - pain in lower extremities (acroparesthesias); 1:117 -000 live births; most common clinical features are telangiectases and corneal dystrophy; can be trated with biweekly infusions of recombinant human alpha-galactosidase A.
523 - Argyll Robertson pupils is small irregular pupils - usually but not always caused by CNS syphilis - they accommodate - but don’t react; absence of miotic reaction to light - both direct and consensual - with preservation of a miotic reaction to near stimulus; lesion in tectum of midbrain; named after Douglas M. C. L. Argyll Robertson.
524 - Barrett’s esophagus is esophageal strictures and epithelial metaplasia from squamous epithelium to a specialized columnar epithelium with intestinal metaplasia in 10% of severe GERD.
525 - Mayer’s reflex is basal joint reflex; adduction of the thumb in response to flexion of the MCP joint of the ring finger in a person with a relaxed hand - a normal finding - a normal finding - but may be absent in pyramidal lesions.
526 - Mobitz type II AV block is second degree block with intermittent conduction failure with sudden non-conducted sinus P wave without progressive prolongation of PR interval; not seen with digitalis excess or inferior wall MI generally but may be seen with anterior wall MI.
527 - refeeding syndrome is hypokalemia - hypomagnesemia - and hypophosphatemia after refeeding a starved patient.
528 - Ehlers-Danlos syndromes is clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders that result from defect in collagen synthesis or structure - at least 10 variants - characterized by hyperextensible skin and hypermobile joints.
529 - Machado-Joseph disease is spinocerebellar ataxia 3 - named for affected families of Azorean origin - autosomal dominant disorder caused by a CAG expansion in gene on 14q - onset after age 40 - associated with diabetes.
530 - Hageman factor is factor XII.
531 - Perthes test is testing for competence of deep femoral veins; tourniquet is applied at mid-thigh with patient standing and patient then walks for 5 min with tourniquet pin place; reduction in size of veins indicates patent valves and lumens.
532 - Virchow’s triad is predisposing factors in thrombus formation 1. endothelial injury - 2. hypercoagulability 3. stasis or turbulence of blood flow; first described in 1860.
533 - Graves’s disease is hyperthyroidism with diffuse goiter - ophthalmopathy - dermopathy from thyroid-stimulating Ig.
534 - Grey Turner’s sign is local areas of discoloration about the umbilicus and particularly in the region of the loins - in acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis (1-2%) and other causes of retroperitoneal hemorrhage.
535 - Winterbottom's sign is seen in the early phase of African trypanosomiasis, a disease caused by the parasites Trypanosoma brucei rhodiense and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense which is more commonly known as African sleeping sickness. Winterbottom's sign is the swelling of lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy) along the back of the neck, in the posterior cervical chain of lymph nodes, as trypanosomes travel in the lymphatic fluid and cause inflammation.
536 - singers’s nodule is is a small - benign laryngeal polyp - usually induced by chronic irritation - such as excessive use of the voice - and is associated most commonly with heavy cigarette smoking; is usually localized to the true vocal cords.
537 - LeFort I fracture is transverse maxillary fracture above dental apices - which also traverses pterygoid plate; nasal complex stable.
538 - Ommaya reservoir is device implanted under the scalp that communicates with the CSF and allows intrathecal delivery of therapeutic agents (e.g. - chemotherapy).
539 - Bergman minimal model is determinants of glucose disposal: phi-1 (acute insulin secretion) - phi-2 (sustained insulin secretion) - Si (insulin sensitivity) - Sg (glucose sensitivity).
540 - Whipple's triad or Whipple's criteria is a medical term which refers to three conditions that are considered by physicians necessary for proving hypoglycemia as the cause of a person's symptoms. They are stated in various versions, but the essential conditions are:
1. Symptoms known or likely to be caused by hypoglycemia
2. A low glucose measured at the time of the symptoms
3. Relief of symptoms when the glucose is raised to normal.
541 - Tullio’s phenomenon is induction of vertigo by loud noises - i.e. sound-induced vestibular activation; associated with and previously considered pathognominc of syphilis.
542 - Sailer’s sign is in aortic regurgitation - pulsation of spleen in the setting of splenomegaly.
543 - Garré - sclerosing osteomyelitis of is typically develops in the jaw - associated with extensive new bone formation that obscures much of the underlying osseous structure.
544 - Papez circuit is pathway from subiculum to the mamillary body and back to the cingulate gyrus believed to play a role in emotion (initially) and memory.
545 - Battle’s sign is ecchymoses over the mastoid process in basilar skull fractures - generally occurring approximately 48 hours after event.
546 - McCune-Albright syndrome is triad of irregular café au lait spots - fibrous dysplasia of long bones with cysts - and precocious puberty.
547 - The Unterberger test, also Unterberger's test and Unterberger's stepping test, is a test used in otolaryngology to help assess whether a patient has a vestibular pathology. It is not useful for detecting central (brain) disorders of balance.The patient is asked to walk on the spot with their eyes closed.If the patient rotates to one side they have a labyrinthine lesion on that side.
548 - Waddell's signs are a group of physical signs, first described by Waddell et al in 1980,that may indicate non-organic or psychological component to chronic low back pain. Historically they have been used to detect "malingering" patients with back pain.
549 - Stenson’s duct is parotid duct - enters oral cavity opposite crown of second maxillary molar tooth.
550 - Zahn - infarct of is in occlusion of an intrahepatic branch of portal vein - sharply demarcated area of red-blue discoloration - not infarct - not necrosis - only marked stasis in distended sinusoids - with secondary hepatocellular atrophy.
551 - Nelson's syndrome is the rapid enlargement of a pituitary adenoma that occurs after the removal of both adrenal glands.
552 - Parinaud’s oculoglandular syndrome is preauricular node enlargement associated with chronic granulomatous conjunctivitis; atypical form of cat scratch disease from inoculation near eye.
553 - Werlhof’s disease is immune thrombocytopenic purpura; described by Werlhof in 1735.
554 - Clichy criteria is criteria for liver transplantation in fulminant hepatic failure: hepatic encephalopathy - and factor V level <> 30 y.o.
555 - Nikolsky's sign is a clinical dermatological sign in which blisters spread easily upon application of horizontal, tangential pressure to the skin. A positive Nikolsky's sign signifies a separation of epithelial cells either from one another or from the basement membrane, which is a layer of connective tissue to which epithelium usually adhered. This occurs in a number of conditions, including but not limited to the potentially fatal autoimmune skin disorder pemphigus vulgaris, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis.
556 - Brudzinski sign is after flexing the neck - flexion of hips and knees in reaction suggests meningeal inflammation.
557 - Mikulicz’s syndrome is bilateral inflammatory enlargement of the parotid - submaxillary - and sublingual - and lacrimal glands and xerostomia - secondary to sarcoid - leukemia - lymphoma - etc.
558 - Bonnevie-Ullrich syndrome is skeletal and soft tissue abnormalities (e.g. - lymphedema of hands and feet - nail dystrophy - skin laxity) - short stature - webbed neck.
559 - O'Donoghue's triad - An unhappy triad- terrible triad- is an injury to the knee. It commonly occurs in contact sports (such as American football). The mechanism for this injury occurs when a lateral (outside) force to the knee is received while the foot is fixed on the ground.
Structures in triad:
This scenario causes an injury to three knee structures:
* the anterior cruciate ligament
* the medial collateral ligament (or "tibial collateral ligament")
* the medial meniscus
The inclusion of the medial meniscus in the triad has been challenged.The reason that the medial collateral ligament and medial meniscus are injured together is because they are attached to one another in the knee joint.
560 - Freiberg disease is osteochondrosis of second metatarsal head; associated with avascular necrosis of metatarsal head; most patients are female.
561 - Charcot’s triad is in 70% of patients with bacterial cholangitis - right-upper-quadrant pain - jaundice - and fever; also Reynold’s pentad.
562 - Pemberton’s sign is in SVC (superior vena caval) obstruction - development of facial plethora - inspiratory stridor - and non-pulsatile elevation of the JVP when patient lifts arms over head.
563 - Patrick's test is performed by a health care provider to evaluate people who have low back pain for sacroiliitis. The knee is flexed to ninety degrees on the affected side and the foot is rested on the unaffected knee. Holding the pelvis firm against the examination table, the affected knee is pushed towards the examination table, a maneuver which provides external rotation of the leg at the hip joint. If pain results, this is considered a positive Patrick's test and sacroiliitis is more likely. However, Patrick's test does not prove that sacroiliitis is causing the back pain, just increases the likelihood.This test is often performed along side Gaenslen's test.
564 - Gaenslen's test, also known as Gaenslen's Maneuver is a medical test used to detect musculoskeletal abnormalities and primary-chronic inflammation of the lumbar vertebrae and sacroiliac joint. This test is often used to test for Spondyloarthritis, sciatica, or other forms of rheumatism, and is often performed during checkup visits in patients who have been diagnosed with one of the former disorders. It is named after Frederick Julius Gaenslen, the orthopedic surgeon who invented the test. This test is often performed along side Patrick's test and Yeoman's test.To perform Gaenslen's test, the hip joint is flexed maximally on one side and the opposite hip joint is extended, stressing both sacroiliac joints simultaneously. This is often done by having the patient lying on his or her back, lifting the knee to push towards the patient's chest while the other leg is allowed to fall over the side of an examination table, and is pushed toward the floor, flexing both sacroiliac joints. The test is considered positive if the patient experiences pain while this test is performed, and may indicate a need for further testing, such as an x-ray or lumbar CT scan.
565 - Buschke - scleredema of - is uncommon dermatosis characterized by thickened - indurated skin associated with diabetes - sometimes with erythema; also known as scleredema diabeticorum.
566 - Arnold-Chiari malformation is downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils and medulla through the foramen magnum - results in pressure atrophy of displaced brain tissue - hydrocephalus from obstruction of the CSF outflow tract - is almost always characterized by the presence of a thoracolumbar meningomyelocele.
567 - Houston - valve of is rectal valves: superior - middle - and inferior.
568 - Parsonage-Turner syndrome is acute brachial neuritis.
569 - Litten’s sign is diaphragmatic movement seen on one side but not the other side in unilateral phrenic nerve palsy.
570 - Gradenigo’s syndrome is thrombosis of inferior petrosal sinus producing ipsilateral facial pain - lateral rectus muscle weakness.
571 - Cushing’s triad is signs of increased ICP 1. hypertension 2. bradycardia 3. irregular respirations.
572 - Plummer’s nail is onycholysis as a sign of hyperthyroidism - especially when it affects the ring finger.
573 - Coley’s toxin is mixture of toxins from Strep and Serratia marcesens used by William Coley in the late 1800s to treat malignancy; active agent found to be lipopolysaccharide.
574 - Martorell’s ulcer is associated with poorly controlled hypertension - punched out ulcers - sharply demarcated - with surrounding halo of erythema - very painful - often crusted - relieved by placing leg in dependent position - found on anterior external aspect of leg between and middle and lower third of limb.
575 - Sjögren’s syndrome is lymphocytic infiltration affects salivary and lacrimal glands and is associated with dry mouth and dry eyes (keratoconjunctivitis sicca); may have either interstitial pulmonary fibrosis or a lymphocytic infiltration of the alveolar walls (may have a malignant transformation with the development of a lymphoma).
576 - Pick’s disease is subtype of frontal lobe dementia - characterized by language abnormalities such as logorrhea - echolalia - and palilalia (compulsive repetition of phrases) - Pick bodies - Pick cells; occurs 1-5% as often as Alzheimer’s.
577 - Maffucci’s syndrome is enchondromatosis associated with soft tissue hemangiomas; associated with ovarian carcinomas and brain gliomas; essentially Ollier’s disease with hemangiomas.
578 - Hürthle cells is in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis - deeply stained colloid or clusters of these oncocytes having an abundant - brightly eosinophilic granular cytoplasm - thought to represent a degenerated state of the follicular epithelium.
579 - Schnitzler’s syndrome is association of IgM monoclonal protein (e.g. as with Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia) with erythematous - urticarial skin lesions.
580 - Saturday night palsy is radial neuropathy from compression at the spiral groove.
581 - Flatow-Dukes’s disease is fourth disease - historically felt to be a separate form of rubella and then felt to be a non-entity but perhaps now is Staph scarlet fever Lancet 357:299 (2001).
582 - Baker’s cyst is popliteal cyst - a fluid-filled mass within the popliteal fossa.
583 - DiGeorge syndrome is failure of 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches to differentiate into the thymus and parathyroid glands - facial abnormalities result primarily from abnormal development of the first arch components during formation of face and ears - 22q11 deletion - CATCH-22 (cardiac abnormality/abnormal facies - T-cell deficit owing to thymic hypoplasia - cleft palate - and hypocalcemia).
584 - Mullerian inhibiting substance is in embryonic development - gonadal peptide hormone that initiates regression of Mullerian duct during male sexual development.
585 - hemoglobin Bart’s is four gamma globin chains - seen in hydrops fetalis (alpha thalassemia) - very high oxygen affinity.
586 - Oliver's sign, or the tracheal tug sign, is an abnormal downward movement of the trachea during systole that can indicate a dilation or aneurysm of the aortic arch.
Oliver's sign is elicited by gently grasping the cricoid cartilage and applying upward pressure while the patient stands with his or her chin extended upward. Due to the anatomic position of the aortic arch, which overrides the left main bronchus, a downward tug of the trachea may be felt if an aneurysm is present.
The sign was first described by English military surgeon William Silver Oliver in 1878.
587 - Cardarelli's sign is an abnormal pulsation of the trachea that may be found in patients with a dilation or aneurysm of the aortic arch.
Cardarelli's sign can be felt by a physician pressing on the thyroid cartilage and displacing it to the patient's left. This increases contact between the left bronchus and the aorta, allowing systolic pulsations from the aorta to be felt at the surface if an aneurysm is present.
588 - Schmid metaphyseal chondrodysplasia is mutation in collagen X - mechanical pressure reduces growth.
589 - Macewen's sign is a sign used to help to diagnose hydrocephalus (accumulation of excess cerebrospinal fluid) and brain abscesses. Tapping (percussion) the skull near the junction of the frontal, temporal and parietal bones will produce a stronger resonant sound when either hydrocephalus or a brain abscess are present.The sign was discovered and described by Sir William Macewen (1848-1924), a surgeon and professor of the University of Glasgow, Scotland who also described Macewen's operation for inguinal hernia.
590 - The Kveim test, Nickerson-Kveim or Kveim-Siltzbach test is a skin test used to detect sarcoidosis, where part of a spleen from a patient with known sarcoidosis is injected into the skin of a patient suspected to have the disease. If granulomas are found (4-6 weeks later), the test is positive. If the patient has been on treatment (e.g. glucocorticoids), the test may be false negative. The test is not commonly performed, and in the UK no substrate has been available since 1996. There is a concern that certain infections, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy, could be transferred through a Kveim test.It is named for the Norwegian pathologist Morten Ansgar Kveim, who first reported the test in 1941 using lymph node tissue from sarcoidosis patients. It was popularised by the American physician Louis Siltzbach, who introduced a modified form using spleen tissue in 1954. Kveim's work was a refinement of earlier studies performed by Nickerson, who in 1935 first reported on skin reactions in sarcoid.
591 - Von Economo’s encephalitis is encephalitis lethargica - also associated with influenza A epidemic of 1918 - associated with postencephalitic parkinsonism - first described in 1917.
592 - Lasègue's sign is a medical sign that involves "straight-leg raising", or SLR. It is of use in diagnosing lumbar disc disorders and tension of the sciatic nerve.It was named after Charles Lasègue (1816-1883).
593 - Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy is X-linked - near or complete absence of dystrophin (normally stabilizes glycoprotein complex on cytoplasmic face of plasma membrane of muscle fibers and protects it from degradation) - onset of weakness age 2-3 - proximal weakness of limb muscles - Gower’s maneuver - pseudohypertrophy of calves caused by fatty infiltration - cardiomyopathy - frequently mental retardation - CK elevated - wheelchair bound by age of 12.
594 - Dagher Maneuver - bimanual palpation of foreign object lodged in pelvis with one digit in an incision lateral to the anus and the other digit inserted in the rectum. by Nabil Dagher.
595 - Curschmann's Spirals refer to the desquamated epithelium seen in biopsies from asthmatic patients. They are named after German physician Heinrich Curschmann (1846-1910). They are often seen in association with eosinophilic infiltration and Charcot-Leyden crystals..
596 - Dalrymple sign is widened palpebral (eyelid) tissue or lid spasm seen in thyrotoxicosis (Graves' disease), causing abnormal wideness of the palpebral fissure. Retraction of the upper eyelid, the white of the sclera is visible at the upper margin of the cornea in direct outward stare. Pathognomonic eye symptom in Graves' disease. Other signs described within the symptomology of Graves' disease are Stellwag's sign (rare blinking), Rosenbach's sign (tremor of the eyelids), Jelink's sign (hyperpigmentation of the eyelid).
597 - Warthin’s tumor is papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum - parotid gland involved - benign - more in males than females - 50s-70s.
598 - Courvoisier's law (or Courvoisier syndrome, or Courvoisier's sign) states that in the presence of a palpable gall bladder, jaundice is unlikely to be caused by gall stones. This is because gall stones are formed over a longer period of time, and this results in a shrunken, fibrotic gall bladder which does not distend easily. Therefore the gall bladder is more often enlarged in pathologies that cause obstruction of the biliary tree over a shorter period of time such as pancreatic malignancy.
599 - Ménière’s disease is 1. fluctuating sensorineural loss - classically involving low frequencies; 2. vertiginous episodes; 3. aural pressure; 4. tinnitus (frequently roaring); pathologic changes consist of dilation of the endolymphatic system that leads to degeneration of vestibular and cochlear hair cells.
600 - Darier's sign is a change observed after stroking the skin of a person with systemic mastocytosis or urticaria pigmentosa. In general, the skin becomes swollen, itchy and red. This is a result of compression of mast cells, which are hyperactive in these diseases. These mast cells release inflammatory granules which contain histamine. It is the histamine which is responsible for the response seen after rubbing the skin.Darier's sign is named after the French dermatologist Ferdinand-Jean Darier who first described it.
601 - Fordyce's spots, or Fordyce granules are small, painless, raised, pale or white spots or bumps 1 to 3 mm in diameter that may appear on the shaft of the penis or on the labia , as well as the inner surface and vermilion border of the lips of the face. They are common in men and women of all ages. They are named after an American dermatologist, John Addison Fordyce. On the head of the penis, they are called Tyson glands, not to be confused with pearly penile papules.
602 - LeVeen shunt is for treating refractory ascites - peritoneovenous shunt connecting peritoneum and central venous system - compare with Denver shunt; LeVeen shunt uses disc valve in firm polypropylene casing.
603 - Degos disease is malignant atrophic papulosis; multisystem lymphocytic vasculitis characterized by thrombosis primarily of cutaneous small vessels as well as small vassels in GI tract - ocular - and CNS; has characteristic porcelain white atrophic lesion.
604 - Hallermann-Streiff syndrome is autosomal recessive syndrome with bird-like facies with hypoplastic mandible and beaked nose - proportionate dwarfism - hypotrichosis - microphthalmia - and congenital cataract.
605 - The Hippocratic face (facies Hippocratica in Latin) is the change produced in the countenance by death, or long sickness, excessive evacuations, excessive hunger, and the like.The nose is pinched, the eyes are sunken, the temples hollow, the ears cold and retracted, the skin of the forehead tense and dry, the complexion livid, the lips pendent, relaxed, and cold.The Hippocratic face is so called because it was first described by Hippocrates.A related term is cachexia.
606 - In the fields of ophthalmology and optometry, the Hirschberg test, also Hirschberg corneal reflex test, is a screening test that can be used to assess whether a person has strabismus (ocular misalignment).A photographic version of the Hirschberg is used to quantify strabismus.It is performed by shining a light in the persons eyes and observing where the light reflects off of the corneas. In a person with normal ocular alignment the light lands on the centre of both corneas. For an abnormal result, based on where the light lands on the cornea, the examiner can detect if there is an exotropia (abnormal eye is turned out), esotropia (abnormal eye is turned in), hypertropia (abnormal eye higher than the normal one) or hypotropia (abnormal eye is lower than the normal one).
607 - Norwood procedure is for treating hypoplastic left heart syndrome - has 3 stages. Stage 1 - anastomosis of proximal main pulmonary artery to aorta - with aortic arch reconstruction and transection and patch closure of distal main pulmonary artery; modified right Blalock-Taussig shunt (subclavian artery to right PA) to provide pulmonary blood flow. ASD created to allow for adequate left to right flow. Stage 2 - Bidirectional Glenn shunt to reduce volume overload of single right ventricle. Stage 3 - modified Fontan procedure to correct cyanosis.
608 - Waterston-Cooley shunt is for treating tetralogy of Fallot - anastomosis of direct ascending aorta to right pulmonary artery; rarely performed currently.
609 - Hamman's sign is a crunching, rasping sound, synchronous with heartbeat, heard over the precordium in spontaneous mediastinal emphysema. Named for Johns Hopkins clinician Louis Hamman, M.D.This sound is heard best over the left lateral position. It has been described as a series of precordial crackles that correlate with the heart beat and not the respirations. Hamman's crunch is caused by pneumomediastinum or pneumopericardium. This is sometimes seen in patients with esophageal rupture.
610 - Homans sign is said to be present when passive dorsiflexion of the ankle by the examiner elicits sharp pain in the calf. It is caused by a thrombosis of the deep veins of the leg. This sign is frequently elicited in clinical practice because of the ease of use, although it is falling into disfavor because of risk of producing an embolism and because it is frequently positive in individuals without DVT. It is named for the American physician John Homans.To test for Homans' sign, flex the patient's knee slightly with one hand and, with the other, dorsiflex the foot. The complaint of calf pain with this procedure is a positive sign and often indicates venous thrombosis.. Absence of Homans' sign does not preclude venous thrombosis.
611 - guy's aprosexia is seen in - allergic rhinitis .
612 - Darkschewitsch - nucleus of is an ovoid cell group in the ventral central gray substance rostral to the oculomotor nucleus - receiving fibers from the vestibular nuclei by way of the medial longitudinal fasiculus; projections are not known - although some cross in the posterior commissure.
613 - Müller-Lyer illusion is visual illusion involving two horizontal lines with arrows where line with inward facing arrows appears shorter than line with outward facing arrows.
614 - Douglas - pouch of is rectouterine pouch.
615 - Holt-Oram syndrome is AD syndrome - dysplasia of the upper limbs and atrial septal defect - reduction anomalies of the upper limbs - heart hand syndrome from mutation in TBX5.
616 - Palla’s sign is in pulmonary embolism - enlarged right descending pulmonary artery.
617 - mathe's sign - Normal kidneys move 2-6 cm with respiration; however, a kidney with perinephric abscess is fixed to the surrounding tissues and does not move during respiration. this is called the mathe's sign . This mobility test provides a specificity rate of 85%. assessment of renal mobility is done by using fluoroscopy or obtaining inspiration-expiration films.
618 - the rind sign - The typical appearance of a perinephric abscess on CT scan is that of a soft-tissue mass (20 Hounsfield unit) with a thick wall that may enhance after introducing intravenous contrast material (ie, the Rind sign).
619 - gerota's fascia - The kidney and the adipose capsule are enclosed in a sheath of fibrous tissue continuous with the subperitoneal fascia, and named the renal fascia (also known as Gerota's fascia after the Romanian anatomist Dimitrie Gerota).
620 - Zuckerkandl fascia - Although the eponym Gerota's fascia is used for both the anterior and posterior layers of the renal fascia, this designation is not entirely correct. The posterior layer was described first by Emil Zuckerkandl in 1883, and is hence called Zuckerkandl's fascia or fascia retrorenalis. Twelve years later, Gerota discovered the anterior layer of the fascia, while taking in account Zuckerkandl's publication .
621 - basedow's disease - (Karl Adolf von Basedow, 1799-1854, German physician). Also known as Graves' disease . Auto-immune disorder of the thyroid gland, most commonly seen in women in their fourth decade of life. It is a common cause of hyperthyroidism.
622 - parry disease - LATS associated hyperthyroidism .
623 - Barth’s syndrome is infantile X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy - short stature - myopathy - neutropenia - from mutation in G4.5 which encodes for tafazzins.
624 - Chuvash polycythemia is autosomal recessive disorder with features of both primary and secondary polythemia - endemic to the mid-Volga River region of Russia (Chuvas); associated with homozygous mutation Arg200Trp in VHL gene (gene associated with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome); mutation impairs interaction of VHL with hypoxia-inducible factor 1 protein.
625 - Hutchinson’s teeth is smaller and more widely spaced than normal and are notched on their biting surfaces; sign of congenital syphilis. wanna see a picture of hutchinson's teeth and know more about the hutchinson's triad , then
626 - Valsalva maneuver is first described in 1704 as a method for expelling pus from the middle ear: deep inspiration followed by forced exhalation against a closed glottis for 10-12 seconds; 4 phases - phase 1 transient rise in BP with straining; phase 2 decrease in systemic venous return - blood pressure - and reflex tachycardia; phase 3 begins with cessation of straining - associated with abrupt transient decrease in blood pressure and in systemic venous return (generally not perceivable); phase 4 an overshoot of systemic arterial pressure and relatively obvious reflex bradcycardia associated.
627 - Stargardt's disease = The most frequently encountered juvenile onset macular degeneration characterised by multiple pisciform subretinal yellowish lesions. for more information on this disease and the scientist
628 - Ota - nevus of is pigmentation mostly involves the skin and mucous membranes innervated by the first and second branches of the trigeminal nerve.
629 - Balkan nephropathy is degenerative interstitial nephropathy seen in Balkan areas (tributaries of Danube River) - tubular proteinuria - glycosuria - RTA - azotemia - associated with increased risk of upper tract transitional cell carcinoma.
630 - hadfield's operation - is done for duct ectasia .
631 - saint's triad - CDH - cholelithiasis + diverticulosis of the colon + hiatus hernia .
632 - glasgow coma scale - EVM - eye opening , verbal response and motor response . remember the least score in GCS is 3 . there is no zero grading in any of the glasgow coma scale components . so the lowest possible value is 3 and the highest possible value is 15 . E(6) + V(5) + M(4) .
633 - Bricker procedure is creation of a urinary diversion by removing a piece of ileum - connecting the ureters to it - and then creating a stoma through the abdominal wall.
634 - Bartter’s syndrome is hypokalemic - hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis with normal or low blood pressure despite increased renin and aldosterone levels and hyperplasia of juxtaglomerular apparatus due to mutations affecting diuretic-sensitive sodium-transport proteins.
635 - Cockayne’s syndrome is a form of progeria characterized by dwarfism - pigmentary degeneration of the retina - optic atrophy - deafness - sensitivity to sunlight - and mental retardation; autosomal recessive inheritance defect in DNA repair.
636 - Wohlfart-Kugelberg-Welander disease is spinal muscular atrophy type III - presents in late childhood - runs a slow - indolent course - weakness greatest in proximal muscles - autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant - survival motor neuron protein affected.
637 - Charlin’s syndrome of neuralgia is severe pain in the inner corner of the eye disproportionate to the degree of ocular inflammation - pain in the root of the nose - tearing - and ipsilateral nasal watery discharge believed to be due to irritation of the ciliary ganglion.
638 - Lissauer’s tract is small diameter primary sensory axons (presumably mediating pain and temperature senses) on their way into the dorsal horn.
639 - Caplan’s syndrome is coexistence of rheumatoid arthritis with a pneumoconiosis - leading to the development of distinctive pulmonary lesions that develop fairly rapidly; these nodular lesions have central necrosis surrounded by fibroblasts - macrophages - and collagen; can occur in asbestosis and silicosis.
640 - Uhthoff’s phenomenon is in multiple sclerosis - sensitivity of symptoms to changes in body temperature or exercise (e.g. - visual loss with exercise); initial description in 1890 amblyopia following exercise.
641 - Brueghel syndrome is dystonia of the motor trigeminal nerve producing a widely opened mouth - named after painting by Flemish painter Brueghel (Neurol 1996;46:1768).
642 - Q fever - caused by coxiella burnetti - a type of rickettsiae - no vector .
643 - Mc Ardle's disease- is due to the deficiency of the enzyme - MYOPHOSPHORYLASE . very poor cori anderson misplaced her towel .
644 - niemann pick's disease - due to the deficiency of the enzyme - SPHINGOMYELINASE - leads to the deposition of phosphosphingosides in the CNS .
645 - Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is first described in 1920 - goitrous chronic autoimmune thyroiditis; in areas with sufficient iodine - elevated TSH is often viewed as evidence of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis as well as antithyroid antibodies; antithyroglobulin antibodies in 60% of patients and antithryoid microsomal antibodies in 95%.
646 - Leiner’s disease is seborrheic erythroderma associated with diarrhea and failure to thrive and to generate C5a chemotactic factor.
647 - cri du chat is 5p- - severe mental retardation - microcephaly - catlike cry - low birth weight - hypertelorism - low-set ears - and epicanthal folds.
648 - libermann-burchard reaction is used for the identification of - cholesterol . other tests related to cholesterol are salkowski's test , zak's test , car and dructor method and the cholesterol oxidase method.
649 - Jansky-Bielschowsky disease is late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis - CLN2 disorder generally characterized by visual loss - epilepsy - and psychomotor deterioration.
650 - Lancisi’s sign is giant v waves in tricuspid regurgitation.
651 - pinta - disease caused by - treponema cerateum .
652 - runt's disease - associated with graft versus host disease ( GVHD ) .
653 - levaditi's stain - stains tissue sections of - spirochetes . to stain films fontana's method is used .
654 - rat bite fever - caused by - streptococcus moniliformis .
655 - Buerger’s sign is in peripheral vascular disease - red foot becomes pale with elevation.
656 - naegler's reaction - clostridium welchii. this is also the food poisoning clostridia .
657 - casoni's test - echinococcosis .
658 - medusa head colonies are produced by - anthrax bacilli .
659 - quellung or neufeld reaction - swelling of capsule in pneumococcus .
660 - draughtsman concentric rings on culture - pneumococcus .
661 - Koplik’s spots is small - white spots (often on an reddened background) that occur on the inside of the cheeks early in the course of measles; considered to be pathognomonic exanthem in measles.
662 - Keshan disease is endemic cardiomyopathy in China associated with selenium deficiency.
663 – nicolandoni sign (Branham’s sign) is bradycardia after compression of AV fistula.
664 - Panner disease is avascular necrosis or osteochondrosis of the capitellum (head of humerus).
665 - bordet gengu medium - a culture medium for bordetella pertussis .
666 - lowenstein jensen's medium - culture medium for mycobacteria .
667 - auramine-rhodamine test - most sensitive test for the identification of mycobacterium tuberculosis .
668 - Charles Bonnet syndrome is visual deprivation hallucinations - generally occurring in visually-impaired individuals; patients realize unreality of hallucinations; first described by Swiss philosopher Charles Bonnet in 1760.
669 - Job’s syndrome is immune deficiency where neutrophils fail to respond to chemotactic stimuli - associated with high levels of IgE; patients susceptible to cold staphylococcal abscesses.
670 - Arlt's line - Carl Ferdinand Ritter von Arlt - Horizontal, linear scarring of the upper tarsal conjunctiva. A classical sign of trachoma.
671 - Arlt's syndrome: a contagious eye infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.
672 - Arlt's operation: transplantation of eyelashes back from the edge of the eyelid for treatment of distichiasis.
673 - Horton’s cephalalgia is cluster headache; also known as histaminic cephalalgia.
674 - Rumpel-Leede sign is test for capillary fragility carried out by incresing venous pressure in forearm with BP cuff and then inspecting the skin for petechial eruptions. Also called Hess test.
675 - Brechenmacher fibers is tracts which connect the atrium to the His bundle.
676 - Mobius’s sign is in Graves’s ophthalmopathy - failure of ocular convergence following close accommodation at a distance of 5 inches.
677 - Santos’s syndrome is Hirschsprung’s disease with renal agenesis - polydactyly - hypertelorsim - and deafness.
678 - Stokes-Adams attacks is fainting spells associated with complete heart block (or other types of bradycardia).
679 - Banti’s syndrome is splenomegaly - hypersplenism - and portal hypertension - noncirrhotic - arises after subclinical occlusion of the portal vein - usually years after occlusive event.
680 - Desçemet’s membrane is membrane that forms the deepest layer of the cornea and functions as thin basement membrane for endothelium; location where copper is deposited in Wilson’s disease Kayser-Fleischer rings.
681 - Dutcher bodies is PAS-positive inclusions containing Ig in the nucleus of lymphocytes - plasma cells - and intermediate lymphocytes in Waldenström macroglobulinemia and multiple myeloma.
682 - Pappenheimer bodies is small dark blue irregularly shaped granules often in clusters - composed of iron - seen in sideroblastic anemia following splenectomy.
683 - Ménétrier’s disease is giant cerebriform enlargement of the rugal folds of the gastric mucosa - results from profound hyperplasia of the surface mucous cells with accompanying glandular atrophy - most often encountered in men (3:1) - 40s-60s - sometimes in children - may produce epigastric discomfort - weight loss - and sometimes bleeding related to superficial rugal erosions - gastric secretions mostly mucous - little HCl - may be sufficient protein loss to produce hypoalbuminemia.
684 - Chédiak-Higashi syndrome is autosomal recessive disorder from mutation in lysosomal-trafficking regulator - resulting in neutropenia - defective degranulation - and delayed microbial killing. Neutrophils and other leukocytes have giant granules. Delayed or decreased fusion of lysosomes with phagosomes in leukocytes impairs phagocytosis of bacteria. Increased infections with S. aureus - group A Strep - partial ocular and cutaneous albinism - silvery hair - peripheral neuropathy - easy bruising - mild mental retardation - severe periodontal disease.
685 - Marie-Strümpell disease is refers to ankylosing spondylitis in Europe.
686 - Ekiri syndrome is extremely rare - fatal encephalopathy described in Japanese children with Shigella sonnei or Shigella flexneri infections.
687 - Kerley C lines is in pulmonary edema - fine interlacing lines throughout the lung base producing a spider web appearance; controversial if unique lines v. crossing lines.
688 - Stauffer’s syndrome is elevation of LFTs due to cholestasis in renal cell carcinoma.
689 - Mollaret’s meningitis is benign recurrent aseptic meningitis.
690 - Blount’s disease is idiopathic varus bowing of tibia.
691 - Tinel’s sign is a sensation of tingling or pins and needles felt in distal extremity when percussion is made over the site of an injured nerve; it indicates a partial lesion or early regeneration of the nerve; 60% sens - 67% spec.
692 - Lambl’s excrescences is small filiform or lamellar lesions on aortic valve leaflets - first described in 1856.
693 - Russell-Silver syndrome is syndrome characterized by lateral asymmetry and low-birth-weight dwarfism.
694 - Cantrell - pentalogy of is diaphragmatic defect (hernia) - cardiac abnormality - omphalocele - pericardium malformation/absence - sternal cleft.
695 - Omenn’s syndrome is combined immunodeficiency with hypereosinophilia; associated with mutations in Rag-1 and Rag-2 proteins and decreased V(D)J recombination efficiency.
696 - Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is congenital condition characterized by port-wine stain (cutaneous capillary hemangiomas) - soft tissue and bony hypertrophy - and venous malformations and lymphatic abnormalities - usually limited to one limb. absence of deep venous system , congenital AV fistulas , varicose veins and hypertrophy of involved extremity .
697 - Amsler grid = Chart used to detect or document macular diseases . by Marc Amsler.
698 - Kerley A lines is in pulmonary edema - thin nonbranching lines several inches in length - radiating from hila - and not following the course of vessels or airways - attributed to thickening of connective tissue sheets which contain communicating perivenous and bronchoarterial lymphatics.
699 - glycogen storage diseases is type I - von Gierke’s disease; type II - Pompe’s disease; type III - Cori’s disease; type V - McAdle’s syndrome.
700 - Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome is slow central nervous system disease - hereditary as well as transmissible prion disease with same mutation - point mutation in codon 102 of prion protein as CJD; characterized by cerebellar dysfunction with multiple plaques.
701 - Lenègre’s disease is sclerodegenerative disease of conduction system - particularly of right bundle branch and left anterior fasicle in people over 50; associated with slow progression to complete heart block.
702 - kehr's sign - pain in the left shoulder - hemoperitoneum - rupture of spleen .
703 - peyronie's disease - palpable fibrous plaque on dorsal penile shaft . Peyronie's disease is a connective tissue disorder involving the growth of fibrous plaques in the soft tissue of the penis affecting as many as 1-4% of men. Specifically the fibrosing process occurs in the tunica albuginea, a fibrous envelope surrounding the penile corpora cavernosa.Peyronies Disease is also formally known as "penile induration" or "Induratio Penis Plastica (IPP)" and colloquially as "bent nail syndrome". A French surgeon, François de la Peyronie, first described the disease in 1743.
704 - esthesio neuroblastoma arises from - OLFACTORY NERVE . esthesio neuroblastoma or olfactory neuroblastoma are uncommon highly malignant tumors , arising from the bipolar sensory receptor cells in the olfactory mucosa .
705 - dumbell tumor is - neurofibroma .
706 - kuntz nerve - The eponym, nerve of Kuntz, should be restricted to descriptions of the intra thoracic branch of the first intercostal nerve. the nerve of kuntz is an important landmark in CERVICODORSAL SYMPATHECTOMY .
707 - thumb printing sign is characteristic of - ischemic colitis . this sign is also seen in acute epiglottitis .
708 - hour glass stomach is seen in - gastric ulcer .
709 - strawberry gallbladder - seen in cholesterosis .
710 - rosenthal syndrome - deficiency of clotting factor 11 .
711 - nicoladoni or branham's sign - seen in ARTERIO-VENOUS FISTULA . pressure on the artery proximal to the fistula causes the swelling to diminish in size , a thrill or bruit to cease, the pulserate to fall and the pulse pressure to come to normal.
712 - allen's test - done to test the integrity of the palmar arch ( arterial ) .
713 - popcorn calcification - on mammography - is seen in fibroadenoma .
714 - peau d' orange appearance of breast cancer - due to blockage of subdermal lymphatics . also seen in chronic breast abscess .
715 - mondor's disease - thrombophlebitis of superficial veins of breast . cord like appearance of subcutaneous veins .
716 - haagensen's signs of - inoperability of the carcinoma of breast - they are a) extensive edema of the breast b)satellite nodules of carcinoma c)inflammatory carcinoma d) a parasternal tumor , indicating spread to the internal mammary nodes e) supraclavicular metastasis f) edema of the arm g) distant metastasis .
717 - brodie's disease - cystosarcoma phylloides - a benign tumor of the breast characterised by massive enlargement of the breast . treatment is by simple mastectomy .
718 - paget's disease of breast and nipple - paget's disease of nipple is a superficial manifestation of an underlying breast carcinoma . it presents as an eczema like condition of the nipple and areola which persists inspite of local treatment . diagnosis is made by biopsy ( not cytology ) . treatment is by biopsy and simple mastectomy .
719 - tylectomy - literally means excision of a lump - done in breast lumps .
720 - patey procedure - surgery of breast carcinoma - type of modified radical mastectomy - removal of pectoralis minor and preservation of pectoralis major .
721 - scanlon's modification of patey's procedure - here the pectoralis minor is just divided but not removed to allow complete removal of level 3 axillary lymph nodes .
722 - halstead's radical mastectomy - removes all breast tissue and skin , the nipple areola complex , the pectoralis major and minor muscles and the level 1 ,2 and 3 axillary lymph nodes .
723 - auchinloss procedure - modified radical mastectomy - where both pectoralis major and minor are preserved with removal of level 1 and 2 axillary lymph nodes .
724 - askanazy cells or hurthle cells - metaplastic transformation of follicular cells - abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasm - seen in hashimoto's thyroiditis , nodular goitre , graves disease and thyroid neoplasm .
725 - de Quervan's thyroiditis or subacute thyroiditis - viral etiology - usually follows URTI . increased ESR - tends to regress spontaneously - painful and associated with enlargements of thyroid .
726 - barrett's esophagus - due to GERD - lower esophageal epithelium - metaplasia to intestinal epithelium ( columnar ) - premalignant - adenocarcinoma - high incidence in males - leads to stricture ( may be present in high esophagus ) and ulcers - medical treatment useful but only to reduce symptoms - cannot reverse the condition - may present as a patchy or ring involvement - endoscopy helps in diagnosis but biopsy confirms the diagnosis .
727 - mallory weiss syndrome - partial thickness rupture - below the gastroesophageal junction - in the gastric cardia - only a few tears involve the gastro-esophageal junction . tear only involves th e mucosa and submucosa but not the muscular layer . where as in boerhaave syndrome , the tear is full thickness tear thru the esophagus with spillage of contents into the mediastinum . seen in alcoholics , patients who abuse analgesics , pregnant females and patients with hiatus hernia .
728 - dysphagia lusoria - compression of aberrant blood vessel on the esophagus causing dysphagia .
729 - schatazki's ring - mucosal ring at squamocolumnar junction of esophagus and stomach - dysphagia is the symptom .
730 - heller's operation is done for - achalsia cardia .
731 - pencil tip deformity is seen in - achalsia cardia .
732 - patterson-brownkelly syndrome - otherwise called plummer-vinson syndrome - iron deficiency anemia - prone to post cricoid cancer - post cricoid web - koilonychia - predisposes to hypopharynx malignancy . occurs in elderly females .
733 - troisier's sign - left supraclavicular lymph node enlargement - carcinoma stomach .
734 - trosseau sign - muscular spasm resulting from pressure applied to nerves and vessels of the upper arm indicative of later tetany ( hypocalcemia ) .
735 - trosseau syndrome - migratory thrombophlebitis seen in many cancers - cancer pancreas , gastric cancer, prostate cancer , lung cancer , ovarian cancer , lymphoma . but wen asked that the trosseau syndrome is most commonly seen in which type of cancer , the answer has to be pancreatic cancer .
736 - curling's ulcer - seen in burns patient - shallow multiple erosions .
737 - cushing's ulcers - seen in head injury and craniotomy cases - also called stress ulcers .
738 - trichobezoar - hair ball in stomach in psychiatric patient . bezors are concretions of undigestible matter that accumulate in the stomach .
739 - phytobezors - balls composed of vegetable matter ( undigestible ) .
740 - honey comb liver is seen in - actinomycosis . liver abscess .
741 - sengstaken tube - used in the treatment of bleeding varices - has to maintain a pressure of 35 mm of Hg to stop bleeding from the varices .
742 - child pugh criteria - for liver transplantation - components a) encephalopathy b) ascites c) prothrombin time d) albumin e ) bilirubin . least 5 and highest 15 . 5-6 = class A - 7-9 = class B - 10-15 = class C .
743 - couinad's nomenclature - segments of liver - segment with independent vascularisation - segment 1 - caudate lobe - based on the position of hepatic veins and portal vein .
744 - gredinogo's triad ( petrositis ) - persistent ear discharge , retroorbital pain and 6th nerve palsy .
745 - trotter's triad - seen in nasopharyngeal carcinoma - trigeminal neuralgia , immobility of homolateral soft palate and conductive deafness . ( TIC )
746 - alport syndrome - triad - progressive renal failure , sensory neural deafness and ocular anamolies . the disease that will never recur after renal transplantation . ( SOaP )
747 - whipple's triad - islet cell tumor - insulinoma . triad - symptoms of hypoglycemia , relief with ingestion of glucose and glucose serum less than 45 mg/dl .
748 - cocket and dodd's operation is for - subfascial ligation .
749 - trendelenburg test - a test used to detect perforator incompetence in varicose veins .
750 - rogoff's sign - palpation on the costovertebral angle produces pain and tenderness in acute adrenal insufficiency .
751 - meig's syndrome - ascites , hydrothorax and benign ovarian tumor .
752 - morgagni hernia - hernia between the costal and sternal part of the diaphragm .
753 - hernia through the pleuroperitoneal canal - bochdalek hernia .
754 - gleason's staging is done in - carcinoma prostate .
755 - buschke - lowenstein tumor - giant condyloma accuminata .
756 - Keratin Pearls - seen in SCCA ( squamous cell carcinoma antigen ).
757 - BAMBOO Bodies - seen in asbestos bodies.
758 - netherton syndrome - Trichorrhexis Invaginata (Netherton Syndrome or Bamboo Hair) - Netherton syndrome (NS) is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis of unknown cause characterized by the following: erythroderma, trichorrhexis invaginata (TI) (bamboo hair), ichthyosis linearis circumflexa (ILC), atopic diathesis, and failure to thrive.
759 - SCHAUMANN Bodies - seen in SARCOIDOSIS.
760 - PSAMOMMA Bodies - Psammoma bodies are commonly seen in certain tumors such as:
* papillary thyroid carcinoma
* papillary renal cell carcinoma
* serous papillary ovarian adenocarcinoma (cystadenocarcinoma)
* endometrial adenocarcinomas(Papillary serous carcinoma ~3%-4%)
* meningioma
* mesothelioma.
761 - Donovan Bodies - seen in granuloma inguinale (STD).
762 - Alder-Reilly anomaly - Also known as: Alder's anomaly , Alder's syndrome , Reilly's granulation anomaly , Reilly's anomaly . Associated persons: Albert von Alder , William Anthony Reilly.
Inheritable anomaly with disturbance of the polysaccharid metabolism; with larger than usual azurophile cytoplasmatic granula in the neutrophile leucocytes. Neutrophile granulocytes, or also monocytes and lymphocytes containg conspicuous, dark or redish coloured granula. The appearance resembles “toxic granulation” seen in sepsis etx. It is often associated with gargoylism and disturbance of skeletal growth, and particularly with the mucopolysaccharidoses, e.g. Hunter, Hurler, Maroteaux-Lamy syndromes. Inheritance is autosomal recessive.
764 - ODLAND Bodies - seen in KERATINOSOME .
765 - Charcot Triad - seen in multiple sclerosis (nystagmus , intention tremor and scanning speech) . there are two sets of charcot's triads and this is the second one .
766 - PASCHEN Bodies - seen in variola or vaccinia .
767 - OKEN'S Body - seen in mesonephros .
768 - Heinz Bodies - seen in G6PD Deficiency .
769 - Ferruginous Bodies - seen in asbestosis .
770 - Aschoff Bodies - seen in rheumatic fever .
771 - Keyser-Fleischer Ring - seen in Wilson's disease .
772 - Brushfield Spots - seen in Down's syndrome .
773 - NEGRI Bodies - seen in RABIES .
774 - Lewy Bodies - seen in Parkinson's Disease .
775 - Hirano Bodies - seen in Alzheimer's disease .
777 - Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction - seen in Syphilis over-aggressive treatment of an asymptomatic Patient that causes symptoms secondary to rapid lysis .
778 - Auer Rods - seen in acute myelocytic leukemia . ( AML) .
779 - Schwartzman Reaction - seen in Neisseria meningitidis impressive rash with bugs .
780 - Chocolate Cysts - seen in endometriosis .
781 - MOOSER Bodies - seen in ENDEMIC TYPHUS .
782 - Warthin-Finkeldey Giant Cells - seen in Measles .
783 - BABES - ERNST Bodies - seen in metachromatic granules.
784 - VEROCAY Bodies - seen in schwanoma .
785 - Lines of Zahn - seen in arterial thrombus .
786 - PICK Bodies - seen in PICKS D/S .
787 - Heberden's Nodes - seen in Osteoarthritis (DIP) .
788 - Clue Cells - seen in Gardnerella vaginitis .
789 - Cotton Wool Spots - seen in HTN .
790 - REILLY Bodies - seen in hurlur's syndrome .
791 - Heterophil Antibodies - seen in infectious mononucleosis (EBV) .
792 - Call Exners Bodies - seen in Granulosa theca cell tumour .
793 - CYTOID Bodies - seen in in degenerated retinal.N fibres..seen in cotton wool spots .
794 - HERRING Bodies - seen in NEUROHYPOPHYSIS .
796 - HARTING Bodies - seen in calcospheritis in the cerebral capillaries .
797 - bouchards nodes are seen in rheumatoid arthritis .
798 - Port-Wine Stain - seen in Hemangioma.
799 - Reinke Crystals - seen in Leydig cell tumor .
800 - BODY OF HIGHMORE - seen in mediastinum testis .
801 - SANDSTORM Bodies - seen in parathyroid glands .
802 - Councilman Bodies - seen in dying hepatocytes.( hepatitis B )
803 - WINKLER Bodies - seen in syphilis.
804 - COCCOID X Bodies - seen in psittacosis .
805 - MALLORY Bodies - seen in ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS .
806 - Kimmelstiel-Wilson Nodules - seen in diabetic nephropathy .
807 - Codman's Triangle - seen in osteosarcoma.
808 - Hirano Bodies - seen in Alzheimer's.
809 - Birbeck Granules - seen in histiocytosis X (eosinophilic granuloma).
810 - Koilocytes - seen in HPV .
811 - BRASSY BODY - seen in dark shrunken blood corpuscle found in MALARIA .
812 - Proud syndrome is Mental retardation with agenesis of the corpus callosum microcephaly limb contractures scoliosis coarse facies tapered digits and urogenital abnormalities Males are more severely affected than females.
813 - Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome is A skin pigmentation disorder with malformations of the eyes teeth bones nails heart central nervous system and hair Mental deficiency is usually associated The syndrome is divided into two forms: Incontinentia pigmenti type I and type II which lethal in males.
814 - Lenz-Majewski syndrome is Progressive hyperostosis characteristic facies short trunk and limbs disproportionately large head sclerosis of the skull bones and vertebrae interdigital webbing hypoplastic or aplastic middle phalanges mental retardation and other defects.
815 - Rosselli-Gulienetti syndrome is A syndrome of anhidrosis-hypotrichosis pili torti microdontia nail dysplasia cleft lip/palate urogenital abnormalities and mental retardation.
816 - Bartter syndrome is Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular apparatus with secondary hyperaldosteronism with normal blood pressure and hyperkalemic alkalosis in the absence of edema Most patients show growth and mental retardation Nephrocalcinosis and hypercalcinuria occur in some cases Diuretic abuse may produce a syndrome with similar characteristics (pseudo-Bartter or factitious Bartter syndrome).
817 - Toriello syndrome is A subtype of frontonasal dysplasia (FND) associated with postaxial polydactyly tibial hypoplasia epibulbar epidermoid occipital encephalocele agenesis of the corpus callosum Dandy-Walker malformation (partial or complete absence of the cerebellar vermis hydrocephalus and posterior fossa cyst continuous with the fourth ventricle and mental retardation.
818 - Snyder-Robinson syndrome is This syndrome was originally reported as a nonspecific form of MXLR The phenotype was later redefined to include large head asthenic body build with diminished muscle bulk marfanoid habitus (tall stature with long and slim limbs little subcutaneous fat muscle hypotonia and arachnodactyly) nasal speech characteristic facies scoliosis thin fingers and other anomalies.
819 - Richards-Rundle syndrome is Hearing loss mental retardation ataxia hypogonadism peripheral muscle wasting and ketoaciduria progressing from childhood and eventually becoming static.
820 - Golabi-Ito-Hall syndrome is Mental retardation with growth deficiency craniofacial deformities heart defects and dry and brittle hair This and X-linked mental retardation 1 are considered similar but separate entities.
821 - Woods syndrome is A craniodigital syndrome of prenatal growth retardation microcephaly mental retardation syndactyly of the fingers and minor facial anomalies.
822 - Baller-Gerold syndrome is A rare syndrome of craniosynostosis radial aplasia delayed psychomotor development and variable craniofacial cardiac renal and skeletal defects.
823 - Rodrigues syndrome is A syndrome of mental retardation blindness owing to severe ocular malformations short stature dysmorphic facies hypotrichosis and dental abnormalities Named after the island of Rodrigues in the Indian Ocean where the syndrome was first observed.
824 - Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome is A progressive condition marked by bilateral nerve deafness and neurological disorders involving several cranial and less commonly spinal nerves.
825 - Laband syndrome is A syndrome of gingival fibromatosis hepatosplenomegaly and anomalies of the nose bones and nails occasionally associated with mental retardation.
826 - Weaver-Williams syndrome is Mental retardation microcephaly weight deficiency unusual facies clinodactyly bone hypoplasia and cleft palate.
827 - Cohen syndrome is Obesity and hypotonia in association with delayed mental development characteristic facies and slender hands and feet The syndrome is divided into two forms: one which is manifested by the symptoms as outlined by Cohen and the other characterized by chorioretinal dystrophy leukopenia and lack of obesity known as the Norio syndrome The syndrome is sometimes is referred to as the Pepper syndrome after the affected family Mirhosseini-Holmes-Walton and Cohen syndrome share many common characteristics.
828 - Sturge-Weber syndrome is A group of neurocutaneous disorders manifested by facial and leptomeningeal angiomas ipsilateral gyriform calcifications of the cerebral cortex seizures development delay hemiplegia emotional and behavioral problems and glaucoma and other ocular disorders Nevus flammeus on the side of the face ipsilateral to angiomatosis sometimes extends to neck chest and back Angiomatosis may occasionally involve the choroid plexus thyroid pituitary gland lungs gastrointestinal organs pancreas ovaries and thymus Correlation between the distribution of the nevus and the course of the trigeminal nerve is responsible for naming the syndrome trigemino-encephalo-angiomatosis but later findings found the relationship to be fortuitous The syndrome frequently occurs in incomplete forms presenting different combinations of symptoms.
829 - Norrie syndrome is Blindness often accompanied by mental deficiency hearing impairment and other disorders The original report describes the syndrome in 7 boys in a Danish family but later cases were reported in several other geographic areas including Episkopi in Cyprus (hence the synonym Episkopi blindness).
830 - Garcia-Lurie syndrome is Anomalies of the prosencephalic structures atelencephaly and microcephaly in association with congenital heart diseases preaxial limb malformations eye abnormalities and genital and other deformities The disorder is frequently lethal Infants who survive are severely retarded Ring chromosome 13 duplication of the long arm of chromosome 13 and this syndrome share many common clinical features In the synonym XK syndrome the letter X stands for the unreported name of the patient of Garcia and Duncan and K for the initial of Lurie's patient.
831 - Gareis-Mason syndrome is X-linked mental retardation syndrome associated with aphasia shuffling gait adducted thumbs and other abnormalities MASA syndrome X-linked hydrocephalus and spastic paraplegia (SPG1) share many common characteristics with this syndrome.
832 - McDonough syndrome is A syndrome of psychomotor retardation characteristic facies kyphoscoliosis diastasis recti cryptorchidism and congenital heart defect Named after Dr Kenneth B McDonough who referred to the authors the original family affected with this syndrome.
833 - Brissaud syndrome is Congenital hypofunction of the thyroid gland with long trunk dwarfism protruding abdomen large head characteristic facies mental deficiency and other abnormalities Cretinism associated with goiter is called goitrous cretinism Forms related to dysgenesis of the thyroid gland are referred to as athyreotic cretinism agoitrous cretinism or hypothyroidism athyreotic hypothyroidism thyroid dysgenesis Muscular hypertrophy in hypothyroid children is known as Kocher-Debré-Semelaigne syndrome.
834 - Hurst syndrome is Craniosynostosis short stature deformed ears and skeletal changes originally reported in two unrelated boys.
835 - Dandy-Walker syndrome is Hydrocephalus absence of the cerebellar vermis and posterior fossa cyst continuous with the fourth ventricle are the main characteristics of this syndrome About 4% of all cases of hydrocephalus are complicated by DWS Associated disorders may include Aase-Smith syndrome 1 Aicardi Coffin-Siris cryptophthalmos Ehlers-Danlos Ellis-van Creveld Jones syndrome Joubert Ruvalcaba-Myhre-Smith Walker-Warburg Meckel Ritscher-Schinzel and Veradi syndromes Dandy-Walker syndrome associated with macrocephaly facial anomalies developmental delay and brain stem dysgenesis inherited as an X-linked recessive trait was reported as a separate syndrome.
836 - Norman-Roberts syndrome is A lissencephaly syndrome characterized by smoothness of the surface of the brain (lissencephaly type I) with thickening of the cerebral cortex (pachygyria) absence of gyri and sulci (agyria) microcephaly mental retardation low sloping forehead and prominent nasal bridge.
837 - Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome is Cerebellar ataxia congenital cataracts which progresses to blindness and psychomotor retardation.
838 - Pitt-Rogers-Danks syndrome is Short stature characteristic facies microcephaly telecanthus prominent eyes abnormal slanting of the palpebral fissures hypoplastic maxilla short philtrum large mouth and severe mental retardation.
839 - Pautrier's Microabscesses is pathognomic for mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma).
840 - Tram-Track Glomeruli is pathognomic for membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.
841 - Kaussmaul Breathing is pathognomic for acidosis.
842 - Current-Jelly Sputum is pathognomic for Klebsiella.
843 - Simian Crease is pathognomic for Down's syndrome .
844 - Philadelphia Chromosome is pathognomic for CML & ALL.
845 - Cheyne-Stokes Breathing is pathognomic for cerebral lesion.
846 - caroli's disease - multiple dilatation of intrahepatic bile ducts . ( cause of choledochal cyst ) .
847 - ormond's disease - retractile mesenteritis .
848 - randall's plaques cause - urinary stones .
849 - pancoast tumor is seen with the tumor of the apical lobe of lung . also called superior sulcus tumor syndrome - results from local extension of a tumor growing in the apex of the lung with involvement of the eigth cervical and first and second thoracic nerves , with shoulder pain that characteristically radiates in the ulnar distribution of the arm , often with radiological destruction of the first and second ribs .
850 - kasabach-meritt syndrome - thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic manifestation due to trapping and destruction of platelets within the AV malformations .
851 - hynes pharyngoplasty - a surgery done to treat cleft palate - is used to improve a child's speech .
852 - rhytidectomy - removal of wrinkles on forehead .
853 - millard's operation or technique - used in cleft lip repair - ROTATION ADVANCEMENT TECHNIQUE - most widely used among all . other techniques are thompson's technique , tennison's technique , le mesurier's method .
854 - tripod fracture - fracture of the zygomatic bone - it is called tripod fracture because the frx occurs at three regions . they are the infraorbital region ,zygomaticotemporal fracture and zygomatico-frontal fracture .
855 - le fort fractures - fractures of the face - 3 types - lefort 1 , le forte 2 and le forte 3 . type 1 is transeverse frx , type 2 pyramidal frx and type 3 is craniofacial dysjunction .
856 - jack stone calculi - seen in bladder - spiculated calculi comprising mainly of calcium oxalate which resemble the jack fruit and hence the name .
857 - oschner sherren regimen is used in the management of - appendicular mass .
858 - bastede's sign - when the rectum is inflated with air through a rectal tube , pain and tenderness occur in the right iliac fossa in case of appendicitis . ( rovsing's sign - palpation in the left iliac fossa will cause pain in the right iliac fossa - other sign seen in acute appendicitis ) .
859 - Boas' or Boas's sign is hyperaesthesia (increased or altered sensitivity) below the right scapula can be a symptom in acute cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder) [1] It is one of many symptoms a medical provider may look for during an abdominal examination. Additionally, it is a right subscapular pain due to cholelithiasis and it is less than 7% sensitive.
860 - mac ewan's sign ( also spelt mac ewen's sign or macewan sign ) An indication of hydrocephalus in which percussion of the skull generates a cracked-pot sound.
861 - murphy's sign - It is useful for differentiating right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Typically, it is positive in cholecystitis, but negative in choledocholithiasis and ascending cholangitis.Classically, it is performed by asking the patient to breathe out and then gently placing the hand below the costal margin on the right side at the mid-clavicular line (the approximate location of the gallbladder). The patient is then instructed to inspire (breathe in). Normally, during inspiration, the abdominal contents are pushed downward as the diaphragm moves down (and lungs expand). If the patient stops breathing in (as the gallbladder is tender and, in moving downward, comes in contact with the examiner's fingers) the test is considered positive. A positive test also requires no pain on performing the manoeuvre on the patient's left hand side.
862 - milroys disease - the familial version of congenital lymphedema . edema onset before 1 year , typically present at birth .
863 - meige's disease - the familial version of lymphedema precox . lymphedema precox is primary lymphedema with onset between the age of 1 and 35 years .
864 - reed sternberg cell - malignant cell in hodgkin's lymphoma .
865 - lund and browder chart - chart used to estimate the percentage of skin burnt to the total body surface area in children . neck is taken as 2 % in all age groups , but the head accounts for 19 % at birth , 17 % at 1 year of age , 13 % at 5 years of age and 7 % in the case of adults .
866 - parkland formula - used in the fluid calculation for resuscitation in burns patient .
parkland formula = percentage of burns X weight of the individual X 4 = fluid in ml ( only crystalloids - RL )
867 - galveston formula - used in the fluid calculation for resuscitation in pediatric burns cases .
galveston formula = 5000 ml/square meter burned + 1500 ml / square meters of total BSA . ( only crystalloids - RL )
868 - brooke formula - used in the fluid calculation for resuscitation in burns patient . it differs from the parkland formula in having colloids and water in the formula .
brooke formula = percentage of burns X weight of the individual X 1.5 ( crystalloid - RL )
brooke formula = percentage of burns X weight of the individual X 0.5 ( colloid - albumin )
brooke formula = 2 litres of free water .
869 - hungry bone syndrome - in the immediate post operative period of parathyroids removal surgery , hypocalcemia results due to excessive uptake of calcium by the bone . this is called hungry bone syndrome .
870 - wermer's syndrome - MEN 1 - pituitary tumors or hyperplasia , pancreatic carcinoma or adenoma or islet cell hyperplasia and parathyroid hyperplasia and adenoma , other less common manifestations are pheochromocytoma , foregut carcinoid and subcutaneous or visceral lipomas . so remember pheochromocytomas can also be a manifestation of MEN 1 .
871 - tear drop bladder is seen in - perivesical hemorrhage with rupture .
872 - warthins tumor - also called adenolymphoma of the parotid gland - also called papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum - arises only from the parotid gland - almost never turns malignant ( pleomorphic adeoma turns malignant).
873 - wharton's duct - duct of the submandibular salivary gland .
874 - sialography - also called ptyalography - x ray contrast examination of the salivary ducts and glands . contraindicated in acute sialadenitis ( parotitis ) .
875 - sialosis refers to - non-inflammatory , symmetrical , painless , recurrent enlargement of the salivary glands .
876 - frey's syndrome - also called as gustatory sweating - complication of parotidectomy - damage to the AURICULOTEMPORAL NERVE during dissection , followed by inappropriate regeneration of parasympathetic autonomic nerve fibres which thus stimulate the sweat glands of the overlying skin . hence also called as the auriculotemporal syndrome .
877 - mc neal's peripheral zone - present in the prostate - and this zone is the seat of prostatic carcinoma .
878 - marion's disease - muscular hypertrophy of internal sphincter of the urinary bladder .
879 - batson's periprostatic plexus - this is a plexus of veins which do not have valves and this is the reason the prostatic carcinoma most commonly metastasises to the vertebrae .
880 - hunterian ligature operation - one of the many ligature operations done for aneurysms - becoming obsolete now - other ligature operations are anel's method , wardrop's method , brasdor's method and antylus method .
881 - abbey-estlander flap - reconstruction flap used to reconstruct LIP .
882 - sappey's line - a line encircling the trunk just above the umbilicus . sappey's line is an imaginary circumferential line centered around L2 where if a melanoma is situated may drain into any one or more of these four sites: both groins and both axillae. but if the melanoma is situated above this sappy's line it is thought that the drainage goes to the axillary nodes and if the melanoma is below this line the drainage is thought to be to the groin lymph nodes . Sappey originally injected mercury into the skin of cadavers and showed that a line drawn just above the umbilicus would differentiate inguinal drainage and axillary drainage. Lesions within 2 cm of this line had bidirectional drainage. With the use of these techniques, drainage patterns not predicted by Sappey's original description of the cutaneous watershed areas have been frequently observed. However, with the advent of lymphoscintigraphy, Sappey's guide to lymphatic flow has been modified.
883 - bisgaurd’s method of treatment - is for venous ulcer .
884 - duhamel's operation - is done for hirschsprung's disease .
885 - bolognini's symptom - a feeling of crepitation occuring from gradual increasing pressure on the abdomen - this is seen in measles .
886 - mauriac's syndrome - diabetes + obesity + dwarfism .
887 - corpora amylaciae is seen in - prostate .
888 - ramsted's operation is done for - congenital pyloric stenosis .
889 - hilton's method - of treatment of an axillary abscess - is advised to protect vital structures - this method is chosen to drain an abscess when there are many important structures like nerves and vessels around the abscess cavity , like axilla . in this method incision is made only through skin and subcutaneous fascia , but the deep fascia is not incised . a pair of artery forceps or sinus forceps is insinuated through the deep fascia into the abscess cavity . the blades are gradually opened to drain the pus . THIS METHOD OF OPENING IS MOST USEFUL IN PAROTID ABSCESS .
890 - nezelof's syndrome - recurrent episodes of pneumonia .
891 - Quant's sign - a T shaped depression in the occipital bone - may be present in - RICKETS .
892 - witzelsucht syndrome - also called " pathological joking " - self amusement by poor jokes and puns - feature of frontal lobe tumors .
893 - biot's respiration - is seen in increased intracranial tension - Biot's respiration, sometimes also called cluster respiration, is an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by groups of quick, shallow inspirations followed by regular or irregular periods of apnea.It is distinguished from ataxic respiration by having more regularity and similar-sized inspirations, whereas ataxic respirations are characterized by completely irregular breaths and pauses. As the breathing pattern deteriorates, it merges with ataxic respirations.Biot's respiration is caused by damage to the medulla oblongata due to strokes or trauma or by pressure on the medulla due to uncal or tentorial herniation. It generally indicates a poor prognosis.
894 - van buchem's syndrome - Endosteal hyperostosis (van Buchem's syndrome): Endosteal hyperostosis is usually inherited as autosomal recessive. Overgrowth and distortion of the mandible and brow become evident during midchildhood. Subsequently, cranial nerves become entrapped, leading to facial palsy and deafness. increased serum alkaline phosphatase . Life span is not compromised, stature is normal, and bones are not fragile. X-rays show widening and sclerosis of the calvaria, cranial base, and mandible. Diaphyseal endosteum in the tubular bones is thickened. Surgical decompression of entrapped nerves may be helpful.............Van Buchem's disease is a rare pathology with recessive transmission and variable expressivity characterised by a progressive cortical bone deposition. There are two types of this disease: Type I (Van Buchem's disease) progressive form for all life and with high level of PA (alkaline phosphate); Type II (Worth disease) the pathologic bone deposition stops at 20 years of age and the level of PA in the adult is normal. The most important histological feature is the bone hypertrophy with preservation of the lamellar frame. The bones interested are: skull vault, mandible, ribs, clavicle and diaphyseal portion of long bones. The first clinical manifestation became evident in childhood with progressive course. The narrowing of the cranial foramen is responsible of the progressive cranial nerves compression and the subsequent neurological signs. The disease is incurable; surgical treatment aims to reduce the intracranial pressure and to correct bones deformity. A clinical case in which the patient treated has esthetic problems but not neurological signs is presented.
895 - Pyle's disease - Metaphyseal dysplasia : This rare, autosomal recessive disorder is often confused semantically with craniometaphyseal dysplasia . Affected people are clinically normal, apart from genu valgum, although scoliosis and bone fragility occasionally occur.
896 - raji cell assays - are used to quantitate - immune complexes .
897 - hickey-hare test - a test used to diagnose DIABETES INSIPIDUS .
898 - seldinger needle - a needle used for arteriography .
899 - commando operation - an operation done for the excision of the carcinoma of tongue , the floor of the mouth , part of the jaw and lymph nodes enbloc .
900 - newman and seabrook's operation is used for - repair of parotid fistula .
901 - Philadelphia chromosome or Philadelphia translocation is a specific chromosomal abnormality that is associated with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). It is due to a reciprocal translocation designated as t(9;22)(q34;q11), which means an exchange of genetic material between region q34 of chromosome 9 and region q11 of chromosome 22. The presence of this translocation is a highly sensitive test for CML, since 95% of people with CML have this abnormality (The remainder have either a cryptic translocation that is invisible on G-banded chromosome preparations, or a variant translocation involving another chromosome or chromosomes as well as the long arm of chromosomes 9 and 22). this 22 chromosome after translocation is called the PHILADELPHIA CHROMOSOME . However, the presence of the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome is not sufficient to diagnose CML, since it is also found in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 25–30% in adult and 2–10% in pediatric cases) and occasionally in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).
902 - anchovy sauce pus - is a feature of amoebic liver abscess .
903 - arrow headed finger - on x ray - suggestive of acromegaly .
904 - steinstrasse - ureteric obstruction due to fragments in ureter .
905 - no man's land - in the palm - ZONE 2 .
906 - millard's rule of ten - applied to the time after birth when the cleft lip surgery is to be done - normally it is 3 months or 3 - 6 months . but millard who also developed the rotation advancement technique for cleft lip surgery developed a rule of ten where the child has to be more than 10 WEEKS old or greater than or equal to 10 LBS(4.5 kg) weight or shud have hemoglobin of 10 GM % . this is called the rule of ten by millard .
907 - lord's and jaboulay's operation - is done for hydrocele .
908 - treves fold or the fold of treves - the ileo-appendicular fold of peritoneum .
909 - john hunter - the surgeon who introduced catgut in surgery .
910 - joseph lister - the man who introduced the antiseptic surgery . he is the man who said " skin is the best dressing " .
911 - signe-de-dance - empty right iliac fossa in intussusception .
912 - left sided appendicitis - this term is usually used when the doctor refers to DIVERTICULITIS .
913 - brunshwings operation - pelvic exentration - Surgery to remove the lower colon, rectum, and bladder, and create stomata (openings) through which urine and stool are passed out of the body. In women, the cervix, vagina, ovaries, and nearby lymph nodes are also removed.Cancer Patient .
914 - lembert sutures - used in abdominal surgeries - they are sero muscular sutures .
915 - snow storm ascites - is seen in meconium ileus .
916 - tennis elbow - tendinitis over the common extensor origin - tenderness over the lateral epicondyle .
917 - brochardt's triad - seen in acute gastric volvulus - acute epigastric pain , violent retching and inability to pass a nasogastric tube .
918 - orthobaric oxygen - used in carbonmonoxide poisoning .
919 - adson's test - positive with cervical rib - 1. Indications - Evaluation of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome . 2. Technique - Patient breathes deeply - Neck extended - Chin turned toward affected side - Repeat test with chin to opposite side 3. Positive test findings are Decreased Radial Pulse and Distal extremity pain reproduced 4.Positive test suggests interscalene compression .
920 - sistrunk's operation - done in thyroglossal cyst and thyroglossal fistula . since the thyroglossal tract is closely associated with the hyoid bone , the central part of the hyoid bone is also excised.
921 - rivinus ducts or ducts of rivinus - sublingual salivary gland secretes via tiny openings called ducts of rivinus into the floor of the mouth or via several ducts which unite to form the common sublingual duct ( bartholin ) which then merges with the wharton's duct . wharton's duct is the duct of the submaxillary salivary gland .
922 - potato tumor - carotid body tumor - chemodectoma - non-chromaffin paraganglioma - associated with pheochromocytoma - arises from chemoreceptor cells - 5 th decade - painless lump - rubbery , pulsatile , firm . can be emptied by firm pressure but refills slowly - bruit may be present - mobile from side to side but not up and down - rarely metastasis - FNAC and BIOPSY contraindicated - surgical excision - operation is best avoided in elderly patients .
923 - moon's molars are seen in - syphilis .
924 - leonine facies - seen in lepromatous leprosy - L to L .
925 - sardonic grin - associated with - tetanus .
926 - dubois abscess - thymus gland abscess seen in congenital syphilis .
927 - clutton's joints - painless effusions in joints in congenital syphilis .
928 - erysipelas - skin disease caused by streptococcus pyogenes .
929 - floating teeth - radiographic finding in - Histiocytosis X .
930 - biligraffin - dye used in IV cholangiography .
931 - iapanoic acid - substance used in oral cholecystography ( OCG ) .
932 - limey bile - a toothpaste like emulsion in the gall bladder .
933 - the Adson's sign is loss of radial pulse while turning the head to the contralateral side, slightly elevating the chin and breathing in.Adson's sign is seen during abduction and external rotation at the shoulder, where there is loss of the radial pulse in the arm. It can be a sign of thoracic outlet syndrome. Thoracic outlet obstruction may be caused by a number of abnormalities, including degenerative or bony disorders, trauma to the cervical spine, fibromuscular bands, vascular abnormalities, and spasm of the anterior scalene muscle. Symptoms are due to compression of the brachial plexus and subclavian vasculature, and consist of complaints ranging from diffuse arm pain to a sensation of arm fatigue, frequently aggravated by carrying anything in the ipsilateral hand or doing overhead work such as window cleaning. sign elicited by doing the adson's test . Technique - Patient breathes deeply - Neck extended - Chin turned toward affected side - Repeat test with chin to opposite side .
934 - white hand sign - The white hand sign is a medical sign observed as a visible whitening of skin on the hand when the subject elevates the hands above the shoulder girdle with fingers pointing to the ceiling and palms facing forward. It results from this change in position causing a compression of the subclavian artery and temporary loss of circulation, as often occurs in patients with thoracic outlet syndrome, a complex syndrome involving the compression of various nerves and blood vessels between the axilla (armpit) and the base of the neck.
935 - theirsch operation - done for prolapse of rectum .
936 - warthin-starry stain - dye used to stain a specimen of chronic antral gastritis in a peptic ulcer disease patient .
937 - grey turner's sign - discoloration of flanks - sign seen in acute pancreatitis .
938 - prosopagnosia - inability to identify faces .
939 - kluver-bucy syndrome - lesion in the amygdala of the brain . it has been experimentally performed on animals and the symptoms are : a) the animal is not afraid of anything b) has extreme curiosity about everything c) forgets rapidly d) has tendency to place everything in mouth and sometimes even tries to eat a solid object e) often has a sex drive so strong that it attempts to copulate with immature animals of the wrong sex or even animals of different species .
940 - chrysotherapy - therapy using gold salts - used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis for patients who fail to improve or who cannot tolerate methotrexate .
941 - nucleus basalis of meynert - the part of the central nervous system typically affected by the alzheimer's disease .
942 – thanatology – is the science that deals with DEATH in all its aspects .
943 – tandem bullet – also known as the piggyback bullet – bullets ejected one after the other , when the first bullet having been stuck in the barrel , fails to leave the barrel and is ejected by the subsequently fired bullet .
944 – souvenir bullet – if a bullet is left in the body for a long time , it gets surrounded by dense fibrous tissue and this is called souvenir bullet .
945 – REAL classification – the classification proposed by the international lymphoma study group for non-hodgkin’s lymphoma .
946 – citelli’s angle – this is the sinodural angle . it is located between the sigmoid sinus and the middle fossa dura plate . others consider the superior side of trautmann’s triangle to be citelli’s angle .
947 – solid angle – this is the angle formed by the three semicircular canals .
948 – huguier’s canal – transmits the chorda tympani nerve out of the temporal bone anteriorly . it is situated lateral to the roof of the protympanum .
949 – huschke’s foramen – is located on the anterior tympanic plate along a non-ossified portion of the plate . it is near the fissures of santorini .
950 – porus acusticus – is the mouth of the internal auditory canal . the canal is divided horizontally by the crista falciformis .
951 - Dorello's canal an occasional opening in the temporal bone through which the abducens nerve and inferior petrosal sinus enter the cavernous sinus.
952 - Alcock's canal (also called pudendal canal) is an anatomical structure in the pelvis through which the internal pudendal artery, internal pudendal veins, and the pudendal nerve pass.
953 – ricochet bullet – a bullet which before striking the object aimed at , strikes some intervening object first and then after ricocheting and rebounding from this hits the object . ( let us call it rajnikanth’s bullet ) .
954 – yawning bullet – a bullet traveling in an irregular fashion instead of traveling nose on is called a yawning bullet .
955 – dum-dum bullet – is a jacketed bullet whose nose it cut off to expose the core .
956 – tumbling bullet – a bullet that rotates end on during its motion is called a tumbling bullet .
957 – crew hair cut or hair on end appearance – skull x-ray – thalassemia .
958 – masochism - gratification gained from pain, deprivation, degradation, etc., inflicted or imposed on oneself, either as a result of one's own actions or the actions of others, esp. the tendency to seek this form of gratification. Sadism and masochism, in the sense, describe psychiatric disorders characterized by feelings of sexual pleasure or gratification when inflicting suffering or having it inflicted upon the self, respectively. Sadomasochism is used in psychiatry to describe either the co-occurrence of sadism and masochism in one person as separate disorders, or as a replacement for both terms, depending on the theory used. So sexual asphyxia is associated with masochism .
959 – black tongue – seen in the abuse of – cocaine ( black teeth also ) .
960 – magnan’s symptom is seen in – cocaine abuse – chronic cocaine users – tactile hallucinations - feeling of some insect crawling under the skin or a feeling of sandy grains under the skin .
961 – kernohan-woltman sign or syndrome – cerebral lesion resulting in same side hemiparesis .
962 – blumberg sign – pain felt upon sudden release of steadily applied pressure on a suspected area of the abdomen indicative of peritonitis.
963 – fincher syndrome – tumor of the cauda equine region associated with spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage , low back pain and headache .
964 – bock ganglion ( also called carotid ganglion ) – a small ganglionic swelling on filaments from the internal carotid plexus , lying on the undersurface of the carotid artery in the carotid sinus .
965 – finney operation – gastroduodenostomy , which creates by the technique of closure , a large opening to ensure free emptying from the stomach .
966 – fisch-renwick syndrome – disorder resulting in congenital deafness , abnormal distance between paired organs and white forelock . ( also called renwick-fisch syndrome ). The other condition associated with white forelock is waardenburg syndrome .
967 – fitz-hugh and curtis syndrome – perihepatitis in women with a history of gonococcal or chlamydial salpingitis .
968 – abbe flap – a full thickness flap of the middle portion of lower lip , that is transferred to the upper lip or viceversa .
969 – abbe-zeiss apparatus ( alsocalled Thomas-zeiss apparatus ) – instrument for counting red blood cells in blood sample .
970 – glance bullet - causes gutter fracture .
971 – hoffman degradation – characteristic of atracurium .
972 – phlebotomus argentipes – vector of kala-azar in India .
973 – dawn phenomenon – early morning rise in plasma glucose – seen in diabetes mellitus .
974 – space of disse – seen in the liver .
975 – hassal’s corpuscle – seen in thymus .
976 – Argyll robertson’s pupil – loss of direct and consensual light reflexes , accommodation reflex present and miotic pupils . remember conditions with miotic pupils : organophosphorous poisoning and opioid poisoning .
977 - red current jelly stool – when passed by an infant with severe colic is diagnostic of – intussusception .
978 – herald patch – seen in pityriasis rosea .
979 – oil drop sign - is distinctive feature of – psoriasis of nails .
980 – the string sign of kantor – is diagnostic of – crohn’s disease .
981 – bennett’s fracture – fracture of the first metacarpal bone .
982 – jod basedow’s goiter – a type of thyroid goiter which follows excessive iodine intake
983 – pipe stem colon – characteristic of ulcerative colitis .
984 – dennis brown splints - are used in the treatment of CTEV ( talipes equino varus ) .
985 – kocher’s method – reduction of anterior dislocation of shoulder is done by this method .
986 – potato nose – hypertrophy of sebaceous glands .
987 – rain drop pigmentation – of the skin – seen in chronic arsenic poisoning .
988 – foster kennedy syndrome – seen in frontal lobe tumors .
989 – naegele’s pelvis – a type of pelvis in which one alae of the sacrum is not well developed .
990 – palmer’s sign – rhythmic uterine contractions – in early pregnancy .
991 – krukenberg tumor – tumor of the ovaries .
992 – gartner’s duct – remnant of wolffian duct . ( a part of mesonephros is also involved ).
993 – cobble stone appearance – of the eyelids is seen in – spring catarrh ( also called vernal keratoconjunctivitis ) .
994 – dinner fork deformity – feature of colles fracture .
995 – woodruff’s area - is located in the posterior area of the inferior turbinate .
996 – glycerol test – used for the diagnosis of the meniere’s disease .
997 – young’s operation – done for atrophic rhinitis .
998 – mc coy cell culture – is used for Chlamydia .
999 – sequestrum – dead bone and involucrum – new bone .
1000 - auspitz sign – seen in psoriasis .


  1. A Dimple creation surgery can be performed both on cheeks that are chubby or not. The size of the dimple determines the amount of tissue to be removed.

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