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Hallmark Findings

Albumino-Cytologic Dissociation

· Guillain-Barre (markedly increased protein in CSF with only modest increase in cell count)

Antiplatelet Antibodies

· idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura


· Marfan’s

Aschoff Bodies

· rheumatic fever

Auer Rods

· acute promyelocytic leukemia (AML type M3)


· sickle cell anemia


· UMN lesion

Basophilic Stippling of RBCs

· lead poisoning

Bence Jones Protein

· multiple myeloma free light chains (either kappa or lambda)

· Waldenstrom’s macroglobinemia

Birbeck Granules

· histiocytosis X (eosinophilic granuloma)

Blue Bloater

· Chronic Bronchitis

Boot-Shaped Heart

· Tetralogy of Fallot

Bouchard’s Nodes

· osteoarthritis (PIP)

Boutonniere’s Deformity

· rheumatoid arthritis

Brown Tumor

· hyperparathyroidism

Brushfield Spots

· Down’s

Call-Exner Bodies

· granulosa cell tumor

Cardiomegaly with Apical Atrophy

· Chagas’ Disease


· 1 ° Syphilis


· Haemophilus ducreyi

Charcot Triad

· multiple sclerosis (nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech)

Charcot-Leyden Crystals

· bronchial asthma

Cheyne-Stokes Breathing

· cerebral lesion

Chocolate Cysts

· endometriosis

Chvostek’s Sign

· Hypocalcemia facial spasm in tetany

Clue Cells

· Gardnerella vaginitis

Codman’s Triangle

· osteosarcoma

Cold Agglutinins

· Mycoplasma pneumoniae
· infectious mononucleosis

Condyloma Lata

· 2 ° Syphilis

Cotton Wool Spots


Councilman Bodies

· dying hepatocytes

Crescents In Bowman’s Capsule

· rapidly progressive (crescentic glomerulonephritis)

Currant-Jelly Sputum

· Klebsiella

Curschmann’s Spirals

· bronchial asthma

Depigmentation Of Substantia Nigra

· Parkinson’s

Donovan Bodies

· granuloma inguinale (STD)


· osteoarthritis (polished, ivory-like appearance of bone)

Ectopia Lentis

· Marfan’s

Erythema Chronicum Migrans

· Lyme Disease

Fatty Liver

· Alcoholism

Ferruginous Bodies

· asbestosis

Ghon Focus / Complex

· Tuberculosis (1 ° & 2 ° , respectively)

Gower’s Maneuver

· Duchenne’s MD use of arms to stand

Heberden’s Nodes

· Osteoarthritis (DIP)

Heinz Bodies

· G6PDH Deficiency

Hemorrhagic Urticaria

· Henoch-Schonlein

Heterophil Antibodies

· infectious mononucleosis (EBV)

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· infectious mononucleosis (EBV)

Hirano Bodies

· Alzheimer’s

Hypersegmented PMNs

· Megaloblastic anemia

Hypochromic Microcytic RBCs

· iron-deficiency anemia

Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction

· Syphilis over-aggressive treatment of an asymptomatic pt. that causes symptoms 2° to rapid lysis

Joint Mice

· osteoarthritis (fractured osteophytes)

Kaussmaul Breathing

· acidosis

Keratin Pearls


Keyser-Fleischer Ring

· Wilson’s

Kimmelstiel-Wilson Nodules

· diabetic nephropathy



Koplik Spots

· measles

Lewy Bodies

· Parkinson’s (eosinophilic inclusions in damaged substantia nigra cells)

Lines of Zahn

· arterial thrombus

Lisch Nodules

· neurofibromatosis (von Recklinhausen’s disease)

Lumpy-Bumpy IF Glomeruli

· poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis

McBurney’s Sign

· appendicitis (McBurney’s Point is 2/3 of the way from the umbilicus to anterior superior iliac spine)

Michealis-Gutmann Bodies

· Malakoplakia

Monoclonal Antibody Spike

· multiple myeloma this is called the M protein (usually IgG or IgA)


· hypothyroidism

Negri Bodies

· rabies

Neuritic Plaques

· Alzheimer’s

Neurofibrillary Tangles

· Alzheimer’s

Non-pitting Edema

· Myxedema
· Anthrax Toxin

Notching of Ribs

· Coarctation of Aorta

Nutmeg Liver


Painless Jaundice

· pancreatic CA (head)


· rheumatoid arthritis

Pautrier’s Microabscesses

· mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma)

Philadelphia Chromosome


Pick Bodies

· Pick’s Disease

Pink Puffer

· Emphysema Centroacinar – smoking Panacinar - a1-antitrypsin deficiency


· gout (MP joint of hallux)

Port-Wine Stain

· Hemangioma

Posterior Anterior Drawer Sign

Posterior Anterior Drawer Sign

· tearing of the ACL

Psammoma Bodies

· Papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid
· Serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary
· Meningioma
· Mesothelioma


· Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Punched-Out Bone Lesions

· multiple myeloma

Rash on Palms & Soles

· 2° Syphilis

Red Morning Urine

· paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

Reed-Sternberg Cells

· Hodgkin’s Disease

Reid Index Increased

· chronic bronchitis

Reinke Crystals

· Leydig cell tumor

Rouleaux Formation

· multiple myeloma RBC’s stacked as poker chips

S3 Heart Sound

· L®R Shunt (VSD, PDA)
· Mitral Regurg
· LV Failure

S4 Heart Sound

· Pulmonary Stenosis
· Pulmonary HTN

Schwartzman Reaction

· Neisseria meningitidis impressive rash with bugs

Simian Crease

· Down’s

Smith Antigen

· SLE (also anti-dsDNA)

Soap Bubble on X-Ray

· giant cell tumor of bone

Spike & Dome Glomeruli

· membranous glomerulonephritis

String Sign on X-ray

· Crohn’s bowel wall thickening

Target Cells

· Thalassemia

Tendinous Xanthomas

· Familial Hypercholesterolemia

Thyroidization of Kidney

· chronic pyelonephritis


· gout

Tram-Track Glomeruli

· membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

Trousseau’s Sign

· visceral ca, classically pancreatic (migratory thrombophlebitis)
· hypocalcemia (carpal spasm)

These are two entirely different disease processes and different signs, but they unfortunately have the same name.

Virchow’s Node

· supraclavicular node enlargement by metastatic carcinoma of the stomach

Warthin-Finkeldey Giant Cells

· Measles

WBC Casts

· pyelonephritis

Wire Loop Glomeruli

· lupus nephropathy, type IV

­ AFP in amniotic fluid or mother’s serum

· Spina Bifida
· Anencephaly

­ Uric Acid

· Gout
· Lesch Nyhan
· Myeloproliferative Disorders
· Diuretics (Loop & Thiazides)



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