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Hematology



Life Span
Neutrophils2-4 days
Lymphocytes2-3 days
Eosinophils8-12 days
Platelets9-11 days
Basophils12-15 days

Half Life
Heparin60- 90 minutes
Factor VIII8 hours
Fibrinogen100 hours
Albumin20- 26 days

 
 
Haemoglobin
Hb AAlpha 2, Beta 2
Hb FAlpha 2, Gamma 2
Hb A 2Alpha 2, Delta 2
Hb HBeta 4
Hb SBeta 6 val- glu
Hb BartsGamma 4

  Blood Coagulation factors
1, 2, 5, 7, 9, 10Produced in liver
2, 7, 8, 9, 10Levels increased with oral contraceptives
2, 7, 9, 10Vitamin K required
2, 7, 10Prothrombin time helps to know the deficiency state
1. 2. 10Both PTT and PT increased in deficiency
5, 8unstable in stored blood
5, 10good for growth of hemophilus organisms



Thrombin time is used to monitor heparin activity

UraemiaBurr cells are seen
CirrhosisSpur cells are seen
Iron depletionSeen in Iron deficiency anaemia, polycythemia vera
Thalassemia minor Decreased osmolysis, microcytic hypochromic anaemia, increased HbA2.
Sickle cell anaemiaTactoids and sickling seen.
Acquired spherocytosisSchistocytes present, Coombs positive
Hereditary spherocytosis Coombs negative
Aplastic anaemiaPlatelets maximum affected and last to recover, Pancytopenia present
Pernicious anaemia and Folate deficiency anaemiaAnisocytosis, poikilocytosis, fragmented RBC , neutrophil lobes increased, platelets normal. Absolute reticulocyte count low. 
Sideroblastic Anaemia 
  1. Hereditary 
  2. Acquired
Ring Sideroblasts present (These are Iron granules in mitochondria around the nucleus)
Microcytic, hypochromis RBC
Macrocytic hypo or normochromic RBC
Polycythemia veraIncreased RBCs, platelets and Leukocytes Splenomegaly esent 
Myeloid metaplastia and MyelofibrosisGiant Platelets 
Macrocytic Anaemia
‘Tear Drop’ poikilocytes
Leukoerythroblastic picture 
Warm antibody autoimmune haemolytic anaemiaPolychromasia and Spherocytosis present 
Megakaryocytosis marrow seen inIdiopathic Thrombocytopenic purpura
Myeloid Metaplasia
Polycythemia vera
Subleukaemic LeukaemiaAbnormal cells present White cell count normal or decreased
Aleukaemic leukaemiaNo abnormal cells
WBC Count usually decreased below normal
Diagnosis from marrow aspiration 
Hairy cell leukaemiaNeutropenia, Splenomegaly, hair cells seen. 
Acute non- lymphocytic Leukaemia
Lymphoblasts
Myeloblasts
Total count usually more than 1, 00, 000
Macrocytic Normochromic Anaemia
Severe Thrombocytopenia
PAS Positive, Sudan black positive, 
stains with Romanowski stain
CML All series of cells seen Myeloblasts greater than 10, Increased Basophils, eosonophils, thrombocytes
C.L.L( B Cell disease)Small lymphocytes increased.
Blasts are rare.
Auto immune hemolytic anaemia present.
Pro- lymphocytic LeukaemiaLarge lymphocytes with prominent nucleolus 
Eosinophillic Leukaemia Eosnophils increased 
Burkit’s lymphoma "Starry sky" appearance in Lymphnode biopsy 




HemophiliasDeficient Factor

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Hemophilia AFactor VIII Deficiency
Hemophilia BFactor IX Deficiency
Hemophilia C Factor XI Deficiency
Para hemophiliaFactor V Deficiency
Pseudohemophilia(Vascular Hemophilia)Von Willebrand’s disease

1 comment:

  1. I always love to share my knowledge with students and I have found that hematology stains have been a great learning tool along the way

    ReplyDelete

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