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AIPGE 2009 questions with answers

1. Proteus – triple phosphate renal stone

2. Appetite stimulant a/e – melanocyte stimulating hormone, melanocyte corticotropic releasing hormone, neuropeptide Y

3. non invasive diarrhoea a/e – shigella, b.cereus, salmonella, y.enterocolitica

4. closely related to anterior commisure – orbit gyrus, uncus, optic chiasma

5. Probability – 6/25, 3/5, 2/5

6. IDEAS –

7. Hernia – loop/end colostomy, loop/end ileostomy

8. Anatomical snuff box – radial a, brachial a, interroseus a, ulnar a

9. Foreign body sensation in the eye, arthritis – tb, sarcoidosis

10. Immediately after eating dyspneoa, cyanosis – allergy

11. Lupus anticoagulant – increase in aPTT only, abortion in pregnant females, can occur without other signs of lupus

12. Milkman # - pseudo#

13. Punched out lesion in skull – electrophoresis, calcium, alp

14. Least polar – methyl, carboxyl, amino, phosphate

15. Nerve entrapment all except – femoral, lat cut n of thigh, tibial, common digital

16. Mammography less sensitive in young women – less gland & more fat

17. Medulla blood supply all except – ant spinal, bulbar, basal, post cerebellar a

18. Trochlear n – ipsilateral sup oblique, longest intracranial n, dorsal n, outside annulus of zinn

19. Vasomotor centre of medulla – only baroreceptor not chemoreceptor

20. Chronic low back pain – pain management, exercise, remove the etiology

21. Pauci immune glomerulonephritis – microangiopathic, alport, sle

22. Coombs positive anaemia – sle, ttp

23. juxta foveal telangiectasia a/e – variant of coats, macular telangiectasia,

24. diabetic retinopathy treatment a/e – seal the tear, remove peripheral retinal layers, vitrectomy, photocoagulation

25. narrow angle glaucoma avoid – duloxetine, citalopram, fluphenazine,

26. valproate causes a/e – weight gain, alopecia, liver damage,

27. uveal effusion a/e – myopia, abnormal scleral structure, scleritis, cilio-choroid can get separated

28. nitrosamine – hypotension and bradycardia

29. paravertebral block can go to a/e – epidural space, subarachnoid space, paravertebral space, intercostals space

30. neuroblastoma – most common extracranial solid tumour in children, >50% come with mets, lung mets common, invove aorta and branches at early stage.

31. monetary fund given to – schizophrenia, dementia, mental retardation

32. normal curve – mean=sd, mean=median, mean=variance

33. frequency distribution – histogram

34. involvement of sweat gland and hair follicles – lichen scrofulosum, military tb

35. all are direct cutaneous disease except – psoriasis, reiter’s disease, lichen planus

36. scarring alopecia – t.capitis, androgenic alopecia, alopecia areata, lichen planus

37. adrenal adenoma a/e – hypoechoic on non contrast ct, contrast appears early and washes out late, regular border

38. casper dictum –

39. stellate wound – 2 feet distance, distant shot, contact wound, close range

40. pedestrian with multiple abrasions – primary impact, sec impact, tert impact.

41. para 3+0,CIN 3 in one quadrant on pap smear, what is the management – cryosurgery, conisation, hysterectomy

42. thyroid papillary ca 2cm – near total with rnd, hemithyroidectomy

43. follicular adenoma vs carcinoma – hurthle cell, increased mitosis, vascular invasion

44. sertoli cells – meiosis, spermatogenesis, seminal fluid, testosterone

45. obstructive azoospermia – fsh and lh

46. smoking assoc with a/e – ca larynx, nasopharynx, bladder, oesophagus

47. latest WHO scale of disability – ideas

48. SEPS –

49. commonest organ to be injured in bomb blast – lung

50. causes pf hypercoagulability a/e – paraproteinemia, infections, inflammatory bowel disease

51. features of pnh – DVT, massive splenomegaly,

52. thromboembolism assoc with a/e – pnh, diabetes

53. cannot be defined in operational terms – mission, goal, objective, target

54. cannot be defined in operational terms – mission, goal, objective, target

55. leptospirosis a/e – treatment of choice iv penicillin g, 10-15% mortality, rat urine

56. all true except – leptospirosis rat urine, tetanus dust droplets, listeria refridgerated food

57. all true except – hypochlorite virucidal, glutaraldehyde sporicidal, phenol require organic material

58. all true except – zinc def pulmonary problems, milk alkali synd hypercalcemia, selenium def cardiac problem

59. precocious puberty boy 5years with pubic hair, bp 120/90 – 11b hydroxylase, deoxycorticosterone, 17 a hydroxylase, aldosterone

60. positive urinary anion gap – alcoholoic ketoacidosis, diabetic ketoacidosis, glue, diarrhoea

61. water sample estimation a/e – clostridium recent contamination

62. nutritional survey a/e – 1 to 4 year mortality, babies < 2.5 kg, mother hb < 11.5

63. q fever vector – aerosol

64. crude birth rate a/e – ratio, fertility indicator, still born excluded

65. imci includes a/e – malaria, resp infections, diarrhoea, tb

66. trauma patient with gcs score 15, bp 100/80 next step – iv fluid with blood for cross matching, immediate transfusion, take him to theatre

67. ductal carcinoma in situ best investigation – usg, mammography, mri, pet

68. calcification of post spinal ligament a/e – begins from thoracic level

69. neural tube closes from – cranial, caudal, lumbar

70. chronic renal failure patient with hyperkalemia immediate treatment before dialysis to reduce potassium levels – calcium gluconate, sod bicarbonate, glucose with insulin

71. after starvation which site will have max glucose receptor – brain, rbc, adipose tissue

72. lipoprotein lipase a/e – adipocytes, myocytes, does not need CII as cofactor

73. child bites his fingers – hgprtase def, adenosine deaminase def

74. after cutting with restriction enzymes segments joined by – dna ligase, polymerase

75. colon carcinoma a/e – mismatch repair genes, k ras, b cantenin, apc

76. comet tail artefact – adenomyomatosis

77. aedes mosquito a/e - constant biters, eggs cannot survive more than one week without water, transmit dengue,

78. dengue hmgic fever a/e – type 1 serotype, reinfection with the same serotype, reinfection with diff serotype

79. hiv maximum transmission – homosexual, heterosexual, blood transfusion, needle prick

80. hiv enters via – cd4, cd5, cd6, cd 56

81. GIST which is increased max – cd 117, s 100

82. pancreatic transplant with bladder catheter – urine amylase, blood amylase, blood glucose

83. 29 yrs with diabetes, no ketonuria, father does not have DM , grandfather has DM – mody, dm1, DM 2

84. RCC a/e – polycythemia, cushings, hypertension

85. angiotensin a/e – vasodilatation, increases thirst, stimulates adh

86. renal Physiology a/e – dct is always hypoosmotic, source of blood to glomerulus? afferent tubule, efferent tubule

87. reversible ischaemia – muga, thallium

88. maltese cross – blastomycosis, penicillium, candida

89. deep perineal pouch a/e – bulbourethral gland, urethral sphincter, root of penis

90. pelvic diaphragm a/e - colles fascia, deep transverse perinii, superficial transverse perinii

91. aortic aneurysm rupture – anterior, posterior, lateral, intraperitoneal

92. m.c. site of subclavian artery constriction – 1st part, 2nd, 3rd, entire artery

93. arteriovenous shunt a/e – found in all organs, thermoregulation, not under the control of ANS

94. pseudomonas multocida - ?

95. mifepristone used in – threatened abortion, fibroid, ectopic pregnancy

96. lactating female best contraceptive – barrier method, lactational amenorrhea

97. laproscopic sterilisation not done in – heart disease, hiatus hernia . incontinenti pigmenti – 100% ophthalmic problems, x linked dominant, skin rash, associated with eye problems

99. neurofibromatosis a/e – autosomal recessive

100. trotters triad – deafness, palatal palsy, trigeminal neuralgia, seizures 
101. tuberous sclerosis triad – facial angiomatosis, mental retardation, seizures, rhabdomyosarcoma

102. the following species of borrelia cause relapsing fever except –

103. pancreatic carcinoma a/e – 75% associated with p53 mutation, 5 year survival for stage 3 is 10-15%

104. gold standard test to diagnose insulinoma – c peptide levels, 72 hrs fasting glucose, glucose value < 32mg%

105. a 9 year old girl posted for tonsillectomy, massive haemorrhage with prolonged aPTT and normal PT – factor 8 def, factor 9 def, vWF def

106. simple random sampling – everyone has equal chance of being picked

107. incidence rate can be calculated from – prospective studies

108. all are analytical studies except – field trials, case control, cohort, ecological

109. baby clinic a/e – baby 24hrs with mother, after normal delivery breast feeding within 4 hrs,

110. target strategy in aids a/e – education, treatment of STD, antiretroviral treatment, condoms

111. chemoprophylaxis available for all except – meningitis, typhoid, cholera,

112. vaccine with highest efficacy – measles, dpt, oral typhoid, tetanus

113. the following vaccine when contaminated causes toxic shock syndrome – measles vaccine

114. the following contractions of esophagus are stationary – primary, secondary, tertiary, quarternary

115. late expanding phase of population – birth rate stationary death rate falling, birth rate lower than death rate, falling death rates with low birth rate

116. fish odour from vaginal discharge – gardenella vaginalis, trichomonas vaginalis, candida

117. all the following are composite muscles except – flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor digitorum profundus, pectineus, biceps femoris

118. the following joint has least chances for recurrent dislocation – ankle, hip, shoulder, knee

119. hemochromatosis a/e – phlebotomy is not useful, common in females, complete penetrance.

120. a young female had following lab values mcv 70, hb 10 mg%, serum iron 60, serum ferritin 100, the diagnosis is – thalassemia trait, chroinic iron deficiency anaemia, megaloblastic anaemia, folic acid def

121. facilitated diffusion is – requires carrier transport, does not depend upon electrical gradient, is a form of active transport, requires creatine phosphate

122. oxygen demand of heart – increases in a constant proportion with heart rate, depends on systolic work, is negligible when heart is at rest

123. pulsatile large liver is seen in – tricuspid regurgitation, aortic aneurysm, mitral regurgitation

124. systolic thrill in left 2nd or 3rd intercostal space is seen in a/e – subpulmonic vsd, pink TOF, ebsteins anomaly

125. a down syndrome patient is posted for surgery, the necessary pre-op investigation to be done is – echocardiography, ct brain, x ray cervical spine

126. zenkers diverticulum true statement is – lies above the cricopharyngeus muscle, barium xray lateral view, it is not a true diverticulum, is congenital

127. all are the uses of lithium except – major depression, anxiety, vascular headache, neutropenia

128. a female child was brought with complaint of generalised swelling of her body. She was passing fatty cast in her urine. No haematuria. The true statement is – no IgG or C3 deposition seen on renal biopsy, her C3 levels could be low, she is suffering from a nephritic type of kidney diasease, alport syndrome

129. von hippel landau syndrome consists of a/e – gastric cancer, renal cell carcinoma, phaechromocytoma, cerebral and retinal haemangiomas.

130. finnish type of nephrotic syndrome is due to mutation in – nephrin, podocin

131. renal polycystic disease in children all are true except – autosomal dominant, renal and hepatic cysts

132. splicing is brought about by – sn RNA, m RNA

133. superior middle alveolar artery is a branch of –

134. splenic artery gives all the following branches except – gastro epiploic, short gastric, pancreatica magna

135. chemotherapy is given to all the following cancers except – (various stages of different cancers were in the options)

136. triple assessment of cancer breast includes – history, clinical examination, biopsy

137. necrotising fasciitis a/e – due to group b haemolytic streptococcus, debridement is mandatory, involves trunk and lower limbs

138. the following cephalosporin doesn’t need dose modifications depending on gfr values – cefoperazone

139. tacrolimus side effect – nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity

140. hand foot and mouth syndrome – capecitabine, carboplatin, cisplatin

141. amifostine – salivary gland, skin, GIT, brain

142. small cell lung cancer true statement – it is chemosensitive, does not involve the bone marrow

143. ifosphamide is – an alkylating agent

144. liquefactive necrosis is seen in – gangrene, tuberculosis

145. reduces bone resorption and increases bone formation – teraparatide, strontium, alendronate, calcitonin

146. the nephrotoxicity of cisplatin is increased by a/e – rifampicin, vancomycin, gentamycin,

147. treatment of severe falciparum malaria – quinine, chloroquine, artesunate, artemether

148. hepatitis C true statement is – most common cause for liver transplantation, does not cause liver cancer, dna virus, cannot infect a person already infected with hepatitis B

149. parvo virus B 19 false statement is – can cross the placenta in only <10% cases, dna virus, causes anaemia

150. all cause traumatic asphyxia except – railway accident, road accident, trampled by crowd, accidental strangulation.

151. true statement of RDA - RDA is defined statistically as 2 standard deviations (SD) above the EAR to ensure that the needs of most individuals are met

152. restless leg syndrome seen in – chronic renal disease, hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia

153. cyanosis does not occur in anaemia because – certain amount of reduced hb has to be present, in anaemia oxygen saturation increases

154. 2,3 disphosphoglycerate not increased in - chronic anaemia, chronic hypoxia, inosine, hypoxanthine

155. hb dissociation curve is sigmoid because – binding of oxygen to one molecule of hb increases the affinity of other oxygen molecules

156. modafinil used in – obstructive sleep apnoea

157. best non surgical treatment of stress incontinence – pelvic floor muscle training, bladder training, electrical stimulation

158. carpal tunnel syndrome caused by a/e – hyperthyroidism, acromegaly, diabetes, cushing

159. a lady with temporal field defects, galactorrhoea, most common cause – pituitary macroadenoma, craniopharyngioma

160. sleep controlled by – thalamus, hypothalamus

161. juvenile arthritis all are present except – rheumatoid nodules, uveitis, fever

162. bleomycin – reduces type 1 pneumocyte, reduces type 2 pneumocyte, reduces alveolar macrophage

163. hepatomegaly is caused by all except – gaucher, niemann pick, hepatocyte porphyria

164. cancer larynx – HPV 6 and HPV 11

165. limb defects with scarring of skin in new born – varicella virus

166. mitomycin C used in –

167. cell cycle specific antineoplastic drug – vinblastine

168. treatment of osteosarcoma are a/e – high dose methotrexate,….

169. in subclinical folic acid deficiency the following drug will bring about vitamin B 12 deficiency

170. the following drug can be given safe in pregnancy - propylthiouracil

171. rapid correction of hyperglycemia using insulin alone will result in – hypokalemia

172. icd 10 includes all except – lack of exercise, alcoholism, poisoning, unhealthy food.

173. cheif cells are found in – neck, pit, fundus

174. risk factor 4 GB Ca a/e – >5mm polyp, stones, increase in size of polyp

175. motorcyclist's fructure means – ring #, comminuted #, separation of suture b/w anterior half and posterior half of skull.

176. spastic paraplegia caused by all except – motor neuron disease, vit B 12 def

177. all are true about eaton lambert syndrome except – positive tensilon test.

178. pain insensitive structure – dural venous sinus.

179. icd….

180. cystic fibrosis all are true except – defect in calcium channel

181. girl with abnormal sweat chloride test, next diagnostic test – transnasal potential difference

182. Rheumatoid factor will give false negative tests with – coombs test….

183. abrasions can be confused with – eczema, chemical, ant bite

184. newborn with hydrocephalous – toxoplasmosis

185. Disease which permanently alters finger print – leprosy

186. vaginal delivery allowed in all except - monochorionic monoamniotic twins, first twin cephalic and second breech, extended breech, mento anterior

187. dysgerminoma marker – LDH

188. Rate of mineralisation of newly formed osteoid – von kossa stain, alizarin stain

189. sympathectomy done in all except – anhidrosis, intermittent claudication

190. intermittent claudication the pain is on taking - 1st step, last step, on exercise

191. chronic limb ischaemia true is – rest pain, pain on exercise

192. best graft for surgery below inguinal is –

193. superior gluteal nerve supplies all except – gluteus maximus

194. carotid artery emboli and CRVO are differentiated by – raised retinal artery pressure

195. intrinsic factor secreted by - chief cells, parietal cells

196. priviliged converstaion is between – doctor and court, doctor and patient

197. myodesis is c/i in

198. which factor is specifically a part of intrinsic clotting pathway – 9, 7, 13

199. Seen in acute inflammation classically – vasodilatation with leakage, vasoconstriction

200. 45 year old male had a chest pain. he died after 4 days. on postmortem intramural coagulation was found. this is – neutrophils, granulation tissue formation, granulomatous reaction, scar 

201. mammography can detect all except – adenosis

202. Athletes pubalgia is\

203. SIRS includes all except

204. substance not fermented in human intestines – cellulose, pectin, fruit

205. Hb S differs in – solubility, o2 affinity, stability

206. all are true regarding Hb S except – glutamine replaced by valine, heterozygotes are protected against malaria,

207. Standing to sitting change in - increased venous return to heart

208. Actyl Co A can't directly form – Glucose

209. Dengue Hemorrhagic fever - Second Infection with different strain of virus the second time

210. 100 KD on SDS-PAGE, then second trial – 2x(20KD + 30KD)

211. Wilm's Tumor - National Wilm tumor staging system

212. Action potential starts in the initial segment of axon because – unmyelinated, less exiting potential required, more ion channels

213. regulatory mechanisms by all except – secretory vesicles, gap junctions, act on neighbouring cells

214. regarding lac operon, CAP is – positive regulator, negative regulator,

215. E157:O7 culture

216. not a cause of primary amenorrhoea - Sheehan

217. Chlamydia infection of the eyes, true statement a/e – can be cultured, penicillin is the treatment, mostly asymptomoatic

218. Salmonella non typhi -

219. edema – C 1 esterase deficiency

220. hyperaldosteronism a/e – metabolic acidosis

221. HepB infected neonate - both Vaccine and Immunoglobin

222. Hashimoto's thyroiditis true a/e – follicular destruction, increase in lymphocytes

223. Diastolic pressure - Aorta elasticity

224. IMG –

225. Joint aspiration in acute gout shows - monosodium urate crystals

226. GIST most common marker – CD 117, S 100

227. all drugs can be given to a mother who is on 35th week of gestation except – chloroquine, methotrexate, sulphadiazine

228. neonate change seen – bradycardia

229. heat rupture – regular rupture, irregular rupture

230. won't be present in right heart failure - increased PCWP

231. - joule burn

232. parotid pathway all except – auticulotemporal nerve

233. sodium bicarbonate given to local Anaesthesia – quick and longer action, delayed and longer action

234. which prevents colon cancer – high fibre diet, selenium, antioxidants

235. Entero Virus won't cause – aseptic meningitis, pleurodynia, herpangina, haemorrhagic fever

236. meningitis leads to vestibulitis through – hyrtle fissure, endolymphatic sac, cochlear aqueduct, vestibular aqueduct

237. cardiac disease predictor – Lp a, homocysteine, chlamydial antibody

238. Benign HTN - hyaline aterioscelerosis

239. micro RNA –

240. temporal arteritis a/e – can cause sudden blindness, elderly, females more than males

241. most common muscle to be congenitally absent – pectoralis major, teres minor, gastrocnemius, soleus

242. popliteal artery not easy to palpate because – it is not superficial, and no bony structure to palpate

243. LHD increased in – retinoblastoma, galactosemia, glaucoma

244. intestinal absorption test – xylulose, fat in stools

245. lambda phage

246. mc cause of superficial thrombophlebitis - trauma, infection, i.v. line

247. pseudoclaudication - cauda equina syndrome

248. stellate ganglion block causes all except – bradycardia

249. lymphoid tissue seen in – lamina propria, adventitia

250. visual cycle – opsin combines with retinol, NADP is reduced, NAD is reduced

251. high tibial osteotomy for what

252. vocal cord sulci- vocal abuse?

253. paneth cell – has more zinc, more lysozyme

254. pulmonary artery pruning seen in

255. surgical staging of ovarian ca all done except – peritoneal wasing, peritoneal biopsy, mesenteric biopsy, palpation of organs

256. spongy urethra drainage into which node – internal iliac, superficial inguinal, deep inguinal

257. In which condition is d onset of condition to death the lowest – post partum hmge, antepartum hmge, obstructed labour, septicaemia

258. About mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

259. angiogenesis requires a/e – VEGF, FGF, TGF

260. weight of average Indian man – 60 kgs

261. synovial fluid characteristics –

262. functions of T helper cells are all except – cytotoxic, help in antibody formation, opsonisation

263. DMPA - 0.3% failure rate, less effective than OCP in reducing endometrial carcinoma

264. tamoxifen side effect – thromboembolism, endometrial canrcinoma

265. eclampsia –

266. fatty content in breast is found in a/e – trauma, galactocele

267. ageing – free radical

268. thoracic outlet syndrome diagnosed by – clinical examination, ct scan, mri

269. apoptosis which cell organelle responsible – mitochondria

270. psammoma bodies seen in a/e – follicular cancer thyroid, papillary cancer thyroid, serous cyst adenoma ovary, meningioma

271. the most bactericidal among the following – O2- metabolite

272. karyotyping used for – chromosomal abnormalities

273. central chemoreceptors are sensitive to – low O2, low CO2, high CO2, H+ concentration

274. blood flow is increased during exercise due to – active metabo275 hcv -true is dna virus,doesn't cause coinfection with hbv,??

276 igc angiography -occult cnv (ans)

277 scar on skin +hypoplasia limbs-cong varicella synd(harrison)

278 heriditary hemochromatosis true excpt-iron def

279 post tonsilectomy bleed in a child coagulatn defct ,aptt incrased-hemophilia b

280 clot stabilisation factor-13

281 idc classification??

282 similar

283 hiv complicationsall excpt-cardiac tamponade,effusion,thromboemb(ans harrison),

284 conjunti foreign body sensation with arthritis h/o trip -reiters synd

285 neuroblastoma true is a/e??spreads through vessels,abdominal mass??

286 one more question with ideas289 dose reduction needed in renal failure all except-rifampicin

290 thyroid ca indicated by all excpt-collumnar cells in follicles,microcalcification,??

291 rooooming in includes all except-breast feeding initiation after 4 hrs of vag delivery
292. one on LACHMAN TEST

293. what is not a primary req of association--biological plausibility, tempral association, consistency, coherence

294. c wave in JVP

295. All true for angioneurotic edema except pittin in nature

296. all are effects of estrogen except dec HDL

297. Moderate grade risk factor of Breast carcinoma- atypical hyperplasia

298. one on Genomic imprinting

299. Colon carcinoma single most imp prognostic factor

300. congenital deformity of organ- malformation

301. oxidation reduction occurs with all except- Hydroperoxidases, perosidases, oxidases

302. Folic def all except- Chloroquine

303. Most reliable diagnostic test for insulinoma-72 hr fasting test.

304.vaginal delivery is contraindicated in-monochorionic monoamniotic twins,mento anterior position..

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